Abled.ALERT: WEATHER. Banner shows a photo of satellite photo of a hurricane formation over Florida. The red beacon for Emergency is lit up while beacons for the other categories are muted. Their photos are described on their category pages.

TROPICAL STORM ALERT

USA: Storm Cristobal

Abled.ALERT: Weather: Photo from space of the spiral cloud formation of Tropical Storm Cristobal.

After tracking Cristobal for the last nine days, it has finally exited the United States north of Lake Superior as an extratropical storm. In its wake, gusty winds and showers remain across the upper Great Lakes. We’ve embedded a video on the aftermath.

Tropical Storm Cristobal

WEDNESDAY UPDATE

From the National Weather Service:

After tracking Cristobal for the last nine days, it has finally exited the United States north of Lake Superior as an extratropical storm.

In its wake, gusty winds and showers remain across the upper Great Lakes, gale warnings are in effect for Lake Michigan and eastern Lake Superior.

Meanwhile, a compact low pressure system along a sharp cold front is currently moving across Lake Michigan and will spread strong gusty winds and thunderstorms through the lower Great Lakes and Ohio Valley this afternoon and evening.

Widespread severe winds, along with isolated tornadoes, are possible across eastern Michigan and much of Ohio. Weather conditions across the Great Lakes will gradually improve on Thursday as the entire storm complex ultimately moves farther away into eastern Canada.

 

MONDAY UPDATE

Tropical Storm Cristobal made landfall along the U.S. Gulf Coast around 5:00 PM CDT Sunday on the southeast Louisiana coast east of Grand Isle.

The resulting heavy rains and high winds caused storm surge flooding that has closed highways and roads in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi, and even broke up the Lighthouse Pier in Biloxi.

Cristobal ‘s feeder bans caused storms in Florida, triggering at least three tornadoes and bringing chest-deep floodwaters to Jacksonville.

New Orleans was spared, thanks to its perimeter of levees, but areas outside that ring were not. Storm surge flooded many areas in St. Bernard Parish and breached a levee in Delacroix Sunday, and a majority of Grand Isle in Jefferson Parish was inundated by bayside flooding.

Two boaters who had gone missing in heavy waves on Lake Pontchartrain clung to a life jacket through the night before making their way to a marsh and seeking refuge in an empty camp near Bayou Lacombe, where they were found on Monday. Search and rescue operations looking for them had been called-off overnight.

Mandeville Fire/EMS Water Rescue team had to rescue 10 people and State park employees helped another 19 other people to evacuate from cabins after the storm surge caused flooding at Fontainebleu State Park across Lake Pontchartrain from New Orleans. The waterfront cabins are built on stilts in the style of old fishing camps from the 1930s on the former sugar plantation site.

Abled.ALERT: Weather: Members of the Mandeville Fire/EMT water rescue team carry occupants from lakefront cabins cut-off by storm surge flooding at Fontainebleu State Park in Louisiana.

Many of Mandeville’s streets, located just north of the state park and inland about three blocks from the lakefront were covered by floodwaters. You can find a gallery of photos of the flooding in Old Mandeville, Louisiana at nola.com.

Rain totals so far have been 1-3 inches for most of southeast Louisiana, but around 5-7 inches have fallen at Gulfport, MS. The flooding threat should ease through tonight, although a flood advisory is in effect until 7:00 AM local time Tuesday morning.

Poweroutages.us reputed at least 23 thousand homes and businesses without power Monday morning. You can find updated numbers for the Gulf states affected on their website, which is currently showing over 15 thousand homes and businesses in Texas without power.

 

CHRISTOBAL FORECAST & WARNING

The National Weather Service (NSW) issued the following warning on Monday afternoon:

Cristobal continues to be a threat for: Heavy Rainfall, Flooding, Tornadoes; Fire Weather and Strong Winds West of it’s Track.

Tropical Depression Cristobal is expected to accelerate north-northeast through the Midwest and western Great Lakes into Wednesday morning. Cristobal will continue to produce heavy rain which may produce flash flooding and isolated significant river flooding with a few tornadoes. Damaging non-thunderstorm winds and fire weather are forecast over much of the southern and central High Plains.

Valid 00Z Tue Jun 09 2020 – 00Z Thu Jun 11 2020

Cristobal to produce widespread heavy rains, flooding and flash flooding and severe weather from the Central Gulf Coast, north through the Mississippi Valley, Lower Ohio Valley and into the Upper Great Lakes.

Additional heavy rains, flash flooding and severe weather possible along a strong front across portions of the Central and Northern Plains.

Elevated to Critical Fire Weather conditions from Southern California, across the Southwest and into the Southern High Plains.

While the wind speeds associated with Cristobal have dropped after it moved inland along the Central Gulf Coast, the storm will continue to bring a very large region of dangerous weather from the Central Gulf Coast, northward through the Mississippi Valley, Lower Ohio Valley and into the Upper Great Lakes.

Widespread heavy rains, flash flooding and flooding are possible tonight as Cristobal moves northward through the Lower Mississippi Valley and into the Middle to Upper Mississippi Valley/Upper Great Lakes region Tuesday into Wednesday.

Rainfall totals across these areas are expected to be 2 to 4 inches with localized totals of 6″+. In addition, severe weather with possible tornadoes and high winds are possible across these areas.

To the west of Cristobal, a strong cold front will be pressing slowly eastward into the Plains and Upper Mississippi Valley tonight into Tuesday. There is the potential for widespread heavy rains, flash flooding and severe weather along this front from central Nebraska, eastern South Dakota, far eastern North Dakota into northwest Minnesota.

The southern portion of the strong front moving through the Plains is not expected to have much precipitation associated with it. However, in its wake, windy conditions are likely from the Southern High Plains, westward across the Southwest and into Southern California. The combination of these high winds and low relative humidities will produce elevated to critical fire weather conditions across these areas.

Temperature-wise, the widespread below average temperatures currently across the Rockies and Great Basin will push eastward behind the above mentioned strong cold front and into the Central/Northern Plains on Tuesday and into the Upper to Mid Mississippi Valley on Wednesday. Above average temperatures are expected across the Southern Plains on Tuesday and from the Lower Lakes into large portions of the Northeast Tuesday and Wednesday.

 

PREVIOUS:

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) has issued a tropical storm warning for parts of the northern Gulf Coast from east of Morgan City, Louisiana, to the Walton/Okaloosa county line in Florida. The warning includes Lakes Pontchartrain and Maurepas. The warning means that topical storm conditions (sustained winds of 39 to 73 mph) are expected within 36 hours.

After causing flooding from heavy rains and high winds in parts of Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula, Cristobal is making landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast today (Sunday).

NHC has issued a storm surge warning from the mouth of the Mississippi River east to Ocean Springs, Mississippi, including Lake Borgne. This means there is a danger of life-threatening inundation from rising water moving inland from the shoreline somewhere within the specified area, generally within 36 hours as outlined on the NHC map below:

U.S. National Hurricane Center Map showing storm surge risk along the entire U.S. Gulf Coast. Starting at the western end from Morgan City to the mouth of the Mississippi River there is 2 to 4 foot surge forecast, rising to 3 to 5 feet as it curves around to Ocean Springs, easing a bit through Mobile Bay and Pensacola Bay to Indian Pass, rising again to between 2-4 feet as it moves down the west coast of Florida easing to 1 to 3 feet south of Tampa Bay down to Marco Island.

Cristobal is not expected to reach Hurricane force but will still pose serious threats because it its wind field is growing in size and will have impact far from its center track. That will propel higher than normal surf levels which will create storm surges and rip tides at all beaches along the Gulf Coast.

The following map from NOAA and the National Weather Service outlines areas at risk for flash flooding from Cristobal between Saturday and Monday:

Map showing the eastern seaboard and Gulf Coast of the United States showing areas at risk of flooding between 5 percent (Marginal) further inland and 10 percent (Slight) along the coast from Louisiana eastward and down to the Tampa Bay Area. There are also pockets of both levels further up the east coast.

Weather.com points out the high tides of most concern for coastal and storm surge flooding along the northern Gulf Coast from Louisiana to western Florida:

-Saturday midday: At least some minor flooding possible.

-Sunday midday: Peak flooding possible.

-Monday midday: Lingering coastal flooding possible, but not as high as Sunday in most areas, except perhaps parts of southeast Louisiana.

Please pay attention to your local forecast sources if you’re in any of the areas expected to be impacted by Cristobal, and if you need assistance in the event of an evacuation order, try to plan ahead with family, friends or local organizations as the usual mass groupings of people in previous evacuation centers likely won’t happen this time around.

We’ve curated some videos below from the most current forecasts to additional relevant information to provide additional context and understanding. The first from KPRC 2 Click2Houston, the NBC affiliate there, examines changes evacuees will notice at shelters, as well as additional storm and flood survival information.

 

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SEVERE WEATHER ALERTS

Severe Weather Alerts

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National Risk Overview

Sunday, June 7
TORNADO: 10%
HAIL: 30%
WIND: 30%
Monday, June 8
TORNADO: 5%
HAIL: 15%
WIND: 15%
Tuesday, June 9
ANY SEVERE: 5%
Wednesday, June 10
ANY SEVERE: low / uncertain
Thursday, June 11
ANY SEVERE: low / uncertain
Friday, June 12
ANY SEVERE: low / uncertain
Saturday, June 13
ANY SEVERE: low / uncertain
Sunday, June 14
ANY SEVERE: low / uncertain

11 severe weather warnings

Phenomena Warning Summary Warning Counties Map
tornado
AT 821 PM CDT, A CONFIRMED TORNADO WAS LOCATED 10 MILES NORTHEAST OF ARNOLD, OR 20 MILES WEST OF BROKEN BOW, MOVING NORTHEAST AT 20 MPH.

show me the full warning

Custer show me
tornado
AT 820 PM CDT, A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM CAPABLE OF PRODUCING A TORNADO WAS LOCATED NEAR PLUMMER, OR 14 MILES SOUTH OF THIEF RIVER FALLS, MOVING NORTHEAST AT 40 MPH.

show me the full warning

Marshall / Pennington / Red Lake show me
severe thunderstorm
AT 817 PM CDT, A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WAS LOCATED OVER HAYES LAKE STATE PARK, OR 17 MILES SOUTHEAST OF ROSEAU, MOVING NORTHEAST AT 45 MPH.

show me the full warning

Lake of the Woods / Roseau show me
tornado
AT 814 PM CDT, A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM CAPABLE OF PRODUCING A TORNADO WAS LOCATED 8 MILES SOUTH OF STUART, OR 21 MILES EAST OF BASSETT, MOVING NORTHEAST AT 30 MPH.

show me the full warning

Holt / Rock show me
severe thunderstorm
AT 804 PM CDT, A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WAS LOCATED 11 MILES SOUTHWEST OF NAPER, OR 23 MILES NORTHEAST OF BASSETT, MOVING NORTHEAST AT 35 MPH.

show me the full warning

Boyd / Holt / Keya Paha / Rock show me
severe thunderstorm
AT 801 PM CDT, A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WAS LOCATED 9 MILES SOUTH OF NEWPORT, OR 15 MILES SOUTHEAST OF BASSETT, MOVING NORTHEAST AT 45 MPH.

show me the full warning

Holt / Rock show me
severe thunderstorm
AT 759 PM CDT, A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WAS LOCATED OVER NORTH PLATTE AIRPORT, OR NEAR NORTH PLATTE, MOVING NORTH AT 25 MPH.

show me the full warning

Lincoln show me
severe thunderstorm
At 700 PM MDT, a severe thunderstorm was located near Dalton, or 22 miles north of Sidney, moving north at 30 mph.

show me the full warning

Cheyenne / Morrill show me
severe thunderstorm
AT 746 PM CDT, A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WAS LOCATED OVER BREWSTER, MOVING NORTHEAST AT 25 MPH.

show me the full warning

Blaine / Brown / Loup / Rock show me
tornado
AT 741 PM CDT, A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM CAPABLE OF PRODUCING A TORNADO WAS LOCATED 9 MILES SOUTH OF ARNOLD, OR 19 MILES SOUTHEAST OF STAPLETON, MOVING NORTHEAST AT 25 MPH.

show me the full warning

Custer / Lincoln show me
severe thunderstorm
AT 742 PM CDT, A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WAS LOCATED 13 MILES SOUTHEAST OF LONG PINE, OR 14 MILES SOUTH OF BASSETT, MOVING NORTH AT 35 MPH.

show me the full warning

Holt / Keya Paha / Rock show me

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PREVIOUS FLOODING ALERT

MICHIGAN: Dam Failures

Abled.ALERT: Video frame shows flooding and a raised road breached after a dam failure in Edenville, Michigan.

A State of Emergency has been declared in Midland County, Michigan north of Detroit after torrential rains caused two dams to fail and caused historic flooding. Mandatory evacuation orders were in place in Edenville and Sanford at the time.

Flooding Alert

The warnings had been coming all day Tuesday for residents around Michigan’s Edenville Dam.

Heavy rains of late had gorged Wixom Lake and officials at the hydroelectric dam rushed to release water from the lake into the Tittabawassee River to release pressure on the dam in a doomed effort to maintain its integrity.

The dam failed just before 6:00 p.m. local time, and the video above captured the lake water bursting through the dam’s flanking embankment. An hour and 15 minutes later, the Sanford Dam was breached.

The flooding has become the worst natural disaster in the state’s modern history, breaking a record set in 1986 when waters rose to 33.9 feet after a relentless downpour of rain. During this disaster, the Tittabawassee River reached 35.05 feet after days of rain.

The rushing waters washed out trees, bridges, roads, homes and businesses from the township of Edenville through Sanford and into the city of Midland.

The dam collapses have led to mandatory evacuation orders, a boil water advisory, washed-out roads and a State of Emergency declaration from Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer, whose office has reached out to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for support. 

Rescuers were going door to door throughout Thursday to check on residents.

In the photo below by Ben Tierney, is an aerial view of downtown Midland and the surrounding area under about 8 to 10 feet of water before the dam breach waters surged through. The green circle to the right of center is the local Farmer’s Market.

At a news conference late Wednesday, Midland City Manager Brad Kaye said “Don’t rush out thinking you can rush back in. The water is still there. Most homes that are flooded will be flooded for a good period of time. We can’t even consider reopening most of these until (the river drops) to 24 feet, which likely won’t be until Saturday night.”

And as you’ll learn in one of the curated video reports below, regulatory questions are being raised about Edenville Dam’s hydro-power generating license. It had been removed in 2018 for what was termed “its inability to withstand a major flood”.

 

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Aerial photo of Midland, Michigan under 8 to 10 feet of water from dam collapse flooding.

Evacuations

Central Michigan suffers two dam collapses in hours. Thousands of residents were forced to flee and a nearby chemical plant was evacuated.

Officials say hundreds are in shelters and some are sleeping in their cars over fears of catching the coronavirus.

This report is from ABC World News Tonight.

WATCH THE FULL EPISODE OF ‘WORLD NEWS TONIGHT’: https://bit.ly/3cT2tXs

 

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Incredible Images

Wixom Lake, a reservoir of the Edenville Dam was entirely drained after record flooding cause the embankment to fail on Tuesday, March 19, 2020.

This footage captured on May 20 shows the devastation caused around the lake and immediately downstream of the dam.

This video is from MLive.

 

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Previous Warnings

New information has been uncovered about who is responsible for the failure of the Edenville Dam, which led to catastrophic flooding in central Michigan.

This report is from The Local 4 Defenders at NBC Detroit affiliate WDIV.

 

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The elderly are most at risk from Coronavirus. But children are affected too. What parents should know. Public service announcement for Unicef USA over a photo of a child washing hands with soap and water. Link to Unicef site.

CURATED EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDES

Abled.ALERT: What To Do" Emergency Response Guides. Image: Alert red beacon icon and photo of emergency vehicles with red lights flashing responding at night.

St John Ambulance Videos

Under the challenges of the current global COVID-19 pandemic, it may be difficult to get immediate help from first responders in an emergency.

If that emergency occurs in a public place, it may be impossible to get help from members of the public, even if they’re trained in first-aid because of fears of catching the SARS CoV-2 coronavirus.

We’ve curated some videos from St John Ambulance in England to provide quick demonstrations on what to do if you’re confronted by a medical emergency in someone at home, or outside your home.

Wikipedia explains that St John Ambulance is the name of a number of affiliated organizations in different countries which teach and provide first aid and emergency medical services, and are primarily staffed by volunteers. The associations are overseen by the international Order of St John and its priories (national branches).

The first such organisation to be founded was the St John Ambulance Association, which was founded in 1877 in England.

Elizabeth IIHead of the Commonwealth since 1952—is at the apex of the Order of Saint John as its Sovereign Head.

 

We hope you find the videos helpful and will consider a donation St John Ambulance at a time when we need them more than ever. Abled.com is not affiliated with the organization in any way and provides the donation links as a public service.

 

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Choking Response

If someone is choking, knowing how to help them could help save their life. In this video a St John Ambulance trainer shows you how to help an adult or child when they are choking.

If someone is unable to breathe and cannot cough out the blockage, you will need to help them slap or squeeze it out.

This St John Ambulance video will take you through the essential first aid steps.

 

What to do: Choking Adult

  1. *If you think someone is choking, ask them ‘Are you choking?’ If they can breathe, speak or cough then they might be able to clear their own throat. If they cannot breathe, cough, or make any noise, then they need your help straight away.
  2.  
  3. *Cough it out. Encourage them to cough and remove any obvious obstruction from their mouth.
  4.  
  5. *Slap it out. If coughing fails to work, you need to give five sharp back blows.To do this, help them to lean forwards, supporting their upper body with one hand.With the heel of your other hand give them five sharp back blows between their shoulder blades.After each back blow, check to see if there’s anything in their mouth.
  6.  
  7. *Squeeze it out. If back blows fail to clear the obstruction, give five abdominal thrusts.To do this, stand behind them and put your arms around their waist.Place one hand in a clenched fist between their belly button and the bottom of their chest.With your other hand, grasp your fist and pull sharply inwards and upwards up to five times. Check their mouth again, each time.
  8.  
  9. *If the blockage has not cleared, call your local emergency line for help straight away. Repeat five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until help arrives, re-checking their mouth each time. If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to start adult CPR

 

What to do: Choking Child

  1. *If you think a child is choking, ask them ‘Are you choking?’. If they can breathe, speak, or cough then they might be able to clear their own throat. If they cannot breathe, cough, or make any noise, then they need your help straight away.
  2.  
  3. *Cough it out. Encourage them to cough and remove any obvious obstruction from their mouth.
  4.  
  5. *Slap it out. If coughing fails to work, you need to give five sharp back blows. To do this, help them to lean forwards, supporting their upper body with one hand. With the heel of your other hand give them five sharp back blows between their shoulder blades.After each back blow, check their mouth and pick out any obvious obstruction. Do not sweep the mouth as this could push the object further down the throat.
  6.  
  7. *Squeeze it out. If back blows fail to clear the obstruction, give five abdominal thrusts. To do this, stand behind them and put your arms around the child’s waist. Place one hand in a clenched fist between their belly button and the bottom of their chest. With your other hand, grasp your fist and pull sharply inwards and upwards up to five times. Check their mouth again, each time.
  8.  
  9. *If the blockage has not cleared, call your local emergency line for help straight away. Repeat five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until help arrives, rechecking their mouth each time. If they become unresponsive at any point prepare to start child CPR.

 

What to do: Choking Baby

If you think the baby is choking then they need your help straight away. If they can breathe, are making noises, or coughing, then they may be able to clear their own throat.

  1. *Slap it out. If the baby cannot breathe, cry, or cough, they may be choking and you will need to give five back blows. Lay the baby face down along your forearm and thigh, making sure you support their head and neck. Give five sharp back blows between the shoulder blades with the heel of your hand.
  2.  
  3. *Turn them over on your thigh and check their mouth. Pick out any obvious obstructions you can see with your fingertips. Do not sweep the mouth as this could push the object further down the throat.
  4.  
  5. *Squeeze it out. If back blows fail to clear obstruction, give five chest thrusts with your baby facing upwards, making sure you’re supporting their head and neck. Put two fingers in the centre of their chest just below the nipple line and give five sharp chest thrusts.Check their mouth again, each time.
  6.  
  7. *Call your local emergency line for help if the obstruction hasn’t cleared. Take the baby with you to make the call.Keep repeating five back blows and five chest thrusts until help arrives, checking their mouth each time. If the baby becomes unresponsive at any point, prepare to start baby CPR.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Act FAST

A stroke is a medical emergency and you need to act fast. A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone is having a stroke and what to do to help.

Time is of the essence.

What to do

If you suspect someone is having a stroke, use  the FAST guide  to identify the key signs:

  1. F – stands for facial weakness.Look at  their mouth or eye – they  may be droopy, and they can’t smile evenly.

  2. A – arm weakness. Ask them to raise both of their arms. They may only be able to raise one. 

  3. S – speech problems. They are unable to speak clearly or might not be able to understand what you are saying to them. Ask them a question, such as ‘What is your name?’  Can they respond appropriately?

  4. T – time to call 999/112 in the UK or 911 in the USA and Canada for emergency help  and tell them you suspect a stroke after using the FAST guide.

  5. *While waiting for help to arrive, keep them comfortable, supported and reassure them. Do not give them anything to eat or drink because it may be hard for them to swallow.

  6. *Keep monitoring their level of response until help arrives. If they become unresponsive prepare to treat for an unresponsive casualty.

Find out more about what to do if someone is having a stroke and learn more about what a stroke is, causes, signs & symptoms at the St. John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Heart Attack Response

If you think someone is having a heart attack, knowing how to help them could be life saving.

In this video a St John Ambulance trainer shares signs of a heart attack and shows you how to care for someone having a heart attack.

Heart attacks are serious and performing these first aid steps could help to save someone’s life.

What is a heart attack?

A heart attack happens when the supply of blood to part of the heart is suddenly blocked, usually by a blood clot. You can make a full recovery following a heart attack, but this may depend on how much of the heart is affected.

Signs and symptoms

Someone having a heart attack may:

*have crushing pain in the centre of their chest, that may spread to their jaw, and down one or both arms.

*be breathless or gasping for breath.

*be sweating profusely.

*experience pain similar to indigestion.

*collapse without warning.

*complain of dizziness.

*have pale skin and their lips may have a blue tinge .

*have a rapid, weak or irregular pulse.

*have a feeling of impending doom.

What to do

  1. *Call 999 or 112 | 911 in the USA and Canada for emergency help straight away and tell them you think someone is having a heart attack.

  2. *Help move the casualty into a comfortable position. The best position is on the floor, with their knees bent and their head and shoulders supported. You could place cushions behind them or under their knees.

  3. *Give them one aspirin tablet (300mg) and ask them to chew it slowly. Do not give aspirin to the casualty if they are under 16 or if they are allergic to it.

  4. *Ask the casualty to take their own angina medication, if they have some.

  5. *Keep monitoring the casualty’s level of response until emergency help arrives.

    *If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to start CPR.

Find out more about what to do if someone is having a heart attack at the St. John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Adult CPR

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It combines chest compressions and rescue breaths to give a person the best chance of survival following a cardiac arrest.

We’ve updated our guidance due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Do not perform rescue breaths on the casualty.

If an adult is unresponsive and not breathing normally, you still need to call for emergency help and start CPR straight away.

 

What to do:

  1. *If you find someone collapsed, you should first perform a primary survey.  Do not place your face close to theirs. If you have established from this that they are unresponsive and not breathing, you should ask a helper to call the local emergency number for help while you start CPR. Ask a helper to find and bring a defibrillator, if available.
  2.  
  3. *Ask your helper to put the phone on speaker and hold it out towards you, so they can maintain a 2m distance. If you are on your own, use the hands-free speaker on a phone so you can start CPR while speaking to ambulance control. Do not leave the casualty to look for a defibrillator yourself. The ambulance will bring one.
  4.  
  5. *Before you start CPR, use a towel or piece of clothing and lay it over the mouth and nose of the casualty.Start CPR. Kneel by the casualty and put the heel of your hand on the middle of their chest. Put your other hand on top of the first. Interlock your fingers making sure they don’t touch the ribs.Keep your arms straight and lean over the casualty. Press down hard, to a depth of about 5-6cm before releasing the pressure, allowing the chest to come back up. The beat of the song “Staying Alive” can help you keep the right speedDo not give rescue breaths.
  6.  
  7. *Continue to perform CPR until:
    • *emergency help arrives and takes over
    • *the person starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally
    • *you are too exhausted to continue (if there is a helper, you can change over every one-to-two minutes, with minimal interruptions to chest compressions)
    • *defibrillator is ready to be used.
  8.  
  9. *If the helper returns with a defibrillator, ask them to switch it on and follow the voice prompts while you continue with CPR. Wherever possible, the helper should keep a distance of 2m.
  10.  
  11. *If the casualty shows signs of becoming responsive such as coughing, opening eyes, speaking, and starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. Monitor their level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary. If you have used a defibrillator, leave it attached.

You can find more information and illustrations on how to perform CPR on an adult at the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Baby CPR

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It combines chest compressions and rescue breaths to give a person the best chance of survival following a cardiac arrest.

We’ve updated our guidance due to the COVID-19 outbreak. It is vital that you perform rescue breaths as cardiac arrest in a baby is likely caused by a respiratory problem.

 

What to do:

  1. *After you have performed a primary survey, if you find that the baby is unresponsive and not breathing, you should ask a helper to call your local emergency number for help while you start CPR.
  2.  
    • *If you’re on your own, you need to give one minute of CPR before calling on a speakerphone.
    •  
    • *Do not leave the baby to make the call.
  3.  
  4. *Start CPR. Place them on a firm surface and open their airway. To do this, place one hand on their forehead and very gently tilt their head back. With your other hand, use your fingertip and gently lift the chin.
  5.  
  6. *Give five initial puffs. Take a breath and put your mouth around the baby’s mouth and nose to make a seal, and blow gently and steadily for up to one second. The chest should rise. Remove your mouth and watch the chest fall. That’s one rescue breath, or puff. Do this five times.
  7.  
    • *If their chest doesn’t rise, check the airway is open. Doing rescue breaths may increase the risk of transmitting the COVID-19 virus, either to the rescuer or the baby. This may be mitigated by placing a faceshield or pocket mask over the baby’s mouth.
    •  
  8. *It is vital that you perform rescue breaths as cardiac arrest in a baby is likely caused by a respiratory problem.

  9.  
  10. *You will then need to give 30 pumps. Put two fingers in the centre of the baby’s chest and push down a third of the depth of the chest. Release the pressure allowing the chest to come back up. Repeat this 30 times at a rate of 100 to 120 pumps per minute.
  11.  
  12. *You will then need to give 30 pumps. Put two fingers in the centre of the baby’s chest and push down a third of the depth of the chest. Release the pressure allowing the chest to come back up. Repeat this 30 times at a rate of 100 to 120 pumps per minute.
  13.  
    • *The beat of the song ‘Nellie the Elephant’ can help you keep the right rate. 
  14.  
  15. *After 30 pumps, open the airway and give two puffs. Keep alternating 30 pumps with two puffs (30:2) until:
  16.  
    • *emergency help arrives and takes over
    •  
    • *the baby starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally.
  17.  
  18. *If the baby shows signs of becoming responsive, such as, coughing, opening their eyes, making a noise, or starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. Monitor their level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary.

You can find more information and illustrations on how to perform CPR on a baby at the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Child CPR

If a child is unresponsive and not breathing, you will need to do CPR. In this video, a St John Ambulance trainer shows the steps & demonstrates how to do CPR on a child, and explains what to do if you’re helping the casualty alone, or with a helper.

Use the primary survey to quickly assess the situation and the casualty. Find out what to do.

 

What is CPR?

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

We’ve updated our guidance due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Rescue breaths must still be performed, as cardiac arrest in children is likely to be caused by a respiratory problem.

 

**If a child is unresponsive and not breathing normally, you still need to call 999 or 112 (UK) 911 (USA & Canada) for emergency help and start CPR straight away!

 

What to do

  1. After you have performed a primary survey, if you find that the child is unresponsive and not breathing you should ask a helper to call 999 or 112 for emergency help while you start CPR. Ask a helper to find and bring a defibrillator if available.

    If you are on your own, you need to give one minute of CPR before calling on a speaker phone.

  2.  
  3. Do not leave the child to make the call or to look for a defibrillator.
  4.  

    *Start CPR:

    Place them on a firm surface and open their airway. To do this, place one hand on their forehead to tilt their head back and use two fingers from the other hand to gently lift the chin.

     

  5. *Give 5 initial rescue breaths.

    Take the hand from the forehead and pinch the soft part of the nose closed, allowing the mouth to fall open.

    With the head still tilted, take a breath and put your mouth around the child’s, to make a seal.

    Blow into their mouth gently and steadily for up to one second, until the chest rises.

    Remove your mouth and watch the chest fall.

    That’s one rescue breath. Do this five times.

     

  6. *You will then need to give 30 chest compressions.

    Kneel by the child and put one hand in the centre of the child’s chest.

    Push down a third of the depth of the chest.

    Release the pressure allowing the chest to come back up.

    Repeat this 30 times at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions per minute.

    The beat of the song ‘Nellie the Elephant’ can help you keep the right rate.

  7.  

    *After 30 compressions, open the airway and give two breaths.

    Keep alternating 30 compressions with two breaths (30:2) until:

    • the child starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally
    • defibrillator is ready to be used.

    Doing rescue breaths may increase the risk of transmitting the COVID-19 virus, either to the rescuer or the child. This may be mitigated by placing a faceshield or pocket mask over the child’s mouth.

    **It is vital that you perform rescue breaths as cardiac arrest in a child is likely caused by a respiratory problem.

  8.  

    *If the helper returns with a defibrillator:

    Ask them to switch it on and follow the voice prompts while you continue with CPR.

  9. *If the child shows signs of becoming responsive:

    With actions such as such as coughing, opening eyes, speaking, and starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. Monitor their level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary.

    • If you have used a defibrillator, leave it attached.

     

    *You can find more information and illustrated examples at the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Bleeding Response

In this video, a St John Ambulance trainer explains what to do if someone is bleeding severely. When bleeding is severe, it can be dramatic and distressing. If someone’s bleeding isn’t controlled quickly, they may develop shock and become unresponsive.

Your priority is to stop the bleeding.

 

*What To Do

 

*Put on gloves

With open wounds, there’s a risk of infection, so wear protective first aid gloves (if available) to help prevent any infection passing between you both.

 

*Apply direct pressure to the wound:

Use a sterile dressing if possible or a clean non-fluffy cloth, to stop the bleeding.

  • If you don’t have a dressing you can ask the casualty to do this themselves.
  •  
  • If the wound is covered by the casualty’s clothing, remove or cut the clothes to uncover the wound.
  •  
  • If there’s an object in the wound, don’t pull it out. It may be acting as a plug to reduce the bleeding. Instead apply pressure on either side of the object to push the edges together.

 

*Ask a helper to call emergency

Give Ambulance Control details of where the wound is and the extent of the bleeding.

  • If you are on your own, use the hands-free speaker on a phone so that you can treat while speaking to ambulance control.
  •  

*Firmly secure the dressing:

Use a bandage to maintain pressure on the wound. Make it firm enough to maintain pressure but not so tight that it restricts their circulation.

 

*Check their circulation beyond the bandage.

Press one of the nails or the skin beyond the bandage for five seconds until it turns pale, then release the pressure. If the colour does not return within two seconds, the bandage is too tight. If necessary, loosen and reapply the bandage.

 

*Treat symptoms of shock.

The loss of blood could cause the casualty to develop shock. Treat them for this by helping them to lie down, on a rug or blanket. Raise and support their legs, so they are above the level of their heart. You should then loosen any tight clothing around their neck, chest and waist and cover the casualty with a blanket to keep them warm.

 

*If bleeding shows through the pad or dressing, don’t remove it.

Apply a second dressing on top of the first. If blood seeps through both dressings, remove both and replace with a fresh dressing. When changing dressings, keep pressure applied to the bleeding site.

 

Support the injured part with a sling or bandage.

Keep checking the circulation beyond the bandage every 10 minutes.

 

*Monitor:

Keep monitoring their level of response until help arrives. If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to start CPR.

 

You can learn more and see illustrations at the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Burn Response

In this video, a St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to do if someone has suffered a burn or scald and shares signs to identify a burn or scald.

Burns and scalds are damages to the skin caused by heat.

A burn is usually caused by dry heat, like fire, a hot iron, or sunshine.

A scald is caused by wet heat, like steam or a hot cup of tea.

Your priority is to cool the burn as quickly as possible.

 

Signs and symptoms

 

*Look for:

  • red skin and swelling
  •  
  • pain in the area of the burn
  •  
  • blistering may start to appear.

 

What to do:

 

*Start cooling the burn or scald as quickly as possible.

Hold it under cool running water for at least 10 minutes or until the pain feels better. If there is no water available, you could use cold milk or canned drinks.

 

*Remove:

Remove any jewellery or clothing, unless stuck to the burn, before the area begins to swell.

 

*When the burn has cooled:

Cover the area loosely with cling film, lengthways. Do not wrap the cling film around the burn as the area needs space to swell.

  • If the burn is on a foot or hand you could use a clean plastic bag.
  •  
  • Do not use ice, creams or gels. They may cause damage and increase the risk of infection.
  •  
  • Do not break any blisters that may appear, as this may cause infection.

 

*Monitor the casualty. Seek medical advice.

 

More information and illustrations are available on the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Seizure Response

A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone is having a seizure, what causes a seizure and what to do to help.

 

What are seizures and what causes seizures?

In adults, the most common cause of a seizure, also known as a convulsion or fit, is epilepsy. However, it can be caused by other things, including a head injury, alcohol poisoning, lack of oxygen, after taking certain drugs, or if someone with diabetes has a ‘hypo’ where their blood glucose is too low.

Epilepsy is a condition that affects the brain and can cause repeated seizures, which are often sudden and dramatic.

 

Signs and symptoms

 

*Look for:

 

  • sudden loss of responsiveness
  •  
  • a rigid body with an arching back
  •  
  • noisy, difficult breathing
  •  
  • grey blue tinge on the lips
  •  
  • start of jerky uncontrolled movements (uncontrolled)
  •  
  • saliva at the mouth, possibly blood stained if they have bitten their tongue or lip
  •  
  • loss of bladder or bowel control.

 

What to do

 

*Protect the casualty

With any seizure, it is important to first protect the casualty from harming themselves during the fit. Ask any bystanders to stand back and clear away any potentially dangerous objects, like hot drinks or sharp objects. Make a note of the time that the seizure started.

  • Do not restrain the casualty or move them unless they are in immediate danger.
  •  
  • Do not put anything in their mouth.

 

*Protect their head.

You could place soft padding underneath it, such as a rolled-up towel. You should also loosen any clothing around their neck.

 

*Check breathing.

When any jerky movements have stopped, open their airway and check their breathing. If they are breathing put them in the recovery position.

 

*Monitor:

Monitor their level of response and make a note of how long the seizure lasted. If they become unresponsive at any time, prepare to emergency and give CPR.

 

*Call emergency if:

 

  • it is the casualty’s first seizure
  •  
  • they are having repeated seizures
  •  
  • the cause of the seizure is unknown
  •  
  • the seizure continues for more than five minutes
  •  
  • the casualty is unresponsive for more than 10 minutes
  •  
  • they have an injury on another part of the body.
  •  

You can find more information and illustrations on the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Allergic Response

A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone has suffered a severe allergic reaction, such as an allergy rash and what to do to help to avoid anaphylactic shock.

 

What is an allergy?

An allergy is an abnormal reaction to an allergen or ‘trigger’ substance.

One of the most common allergens is plant pollen, which often causes hay fever. Other allergens include animal hair, bee stings, medication (especially penicillin), and food, such as nuts and shellfish.

 

What is a severe allergic reaction?

A severe allergic reaction can develop just seconds after someone comes into contact with the allergen. It can affect the whole body, and if it’s not treated quickly enough it could be fatal. This is called anaphylactic shock.

 

Signs and symptoms

 

*Look for: 

  • a red, itchy rash, or raised area of skin (weals)
  •  
  • red, itchy, watery eyes
  •  
  • swelling of hands, feet, or face
  •  
  • abdominal pain, vomiting, or diarrhoea.

There may also be:

  • difficulty in breathing
  •  
  • swelling of tongue and throat with puffiness around eyes
  •  
  • confusion and agitation
  •  
  • signs of shock leading to collapse and unresponsiveness.

 

What to do

 

*Call emergency immediately

Tell ambulance control that you suspect a severe allergic reaction.

 

*Check for auto-injector

If someone’s having a severe allergic reaction, then they may have medication, like an auto-injector. This is a pre-filled injection device containing adrenaline which when injected, can help reduce the body’s allergic reaction. 

Check if they have one, and if they do, help them to use it or do it yourself following the instructions.

 

*Monitor

Help them to get comfortable and monitor their breathing and level of response.

Repeated doses of adrenaline can be given at five-minute intervals if there is no improvement or the symptoms return.

 

You can find more information at the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Diabetic Response

A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone is having a diabetic emergency and what to do to help if you suspect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.

 

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a long-term medical condition where the body cannot produce enough insulin. Sometimes those who have diabetes may have a diabetic emergency, where their blood sugar level becomes too high or too low. Both conditions could be serious and may need treatment in hospital.

Insulin is a chemical produced by the pancreas (that lies behind the stomach). It regulates the blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body. When someone has diabetes, their body cannot keep the blood sugar level within the normal range. Their level can be higher or lower than normal blood sugar.

There are two types of diabetes:

  • Type 1, known as insulin dependent diabetes
  •  
  • Type 2, non-insulin dependent diabetes.

Someone with diabetes may have items with them which could lead you to suspect that they have diabetes:

  • they may be wearing a medical warning bracelet or necklace
  •  
  • they may be carrying glucose gel or glucose tablets
  •  
  • they could have medication, such as an insulin pen, a special pump or tablets and a glucose testing kit.

 

Hyperglycemia – High Blood Sugar

This is where the blood sugar level is higher than normal. It may be caused by a person with diabetes who has not had the correct dose of medication. They may have eaten too much sugary or starchy food or, they may be unwell with an infection.

 

*Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • warm, dry skin
  •  
  • rapid pulse and breathing
  •  
  • fruity, sweet breath
  •  
  • excessive thirst
  •  
  • drowsiness, leading them to become unresponsive if not treated (also known as a diabetic coma)
  •  
  • medical warning jewellery or medication.

 

What to do

 

Call 999 or 112 in the UK | 911 in the US or Canada.

If you suspect hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar), they need urgent treatment. Call 999 or 112 for emergency help and say that you suspect hyperglycaemia.

They may be wearing a medical bracelet or medallion, or have a card on them which can alert you to their condition.

 

*Check breathing & pulse.

While you wait for help to arrive, keep checking their breathing, pulse and whether they respond to you. If they become unresponsive at any point, open their airway, check their breathing and prepare to start CPR.

 

Hypoglycemia – Low Blood Sugar

This is where the blood sugar level is lower than normal. It can be caused by an imbalance between the level of insulin and the level of glucose in the blood. Someone with diabetes may recognise the onset of a hypoglycemic episode.

 

Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • weakness, faintness or hunger
  •  
  • confusion and irrational behaviour
  •  
  • sweating with cold, clammy skin
  •  
  • rapid pulse
  •  
  • palpitations
  •  
  • trembling or shaking
  •  
  • deteriorating level of response
  •  
  • medical warning jewellery or medication.

 

What to do

 

*Give something sweet

If you suspect hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), help the person to sit down. If they have their own glucose gel or glucose tablets, help them take it. If not, you need to give them something sugary, such as a 150ml | 5 oz glass of fruit juice or non-diet fizzy drink; three teaspoons of sugar or sugar lumps; or three sweets such as jelly babies.

 

*Monitor and repeat if necessary

If they improve quickly, give them more of the sugary food or drink and let them rest. If they have their blood glucose testing kit with them, help them use it to check their blood sugar level. Stay with them until they feel completely better.

 

*Call emergency if needed

If they do not improve quickly, look for any other reason why they could be unwell and call emergency for help.

 

*Monitor

Keep monitoring their breathing and level of response while waiting for help to arrive.

  • If they are not fully alert, don’t try to give them something to eat or drink as they may choke.
  •  
  • If they become unresponsive at any point, open their airway, check their breathing and prepare to give CPR.

 

You can find more information on this at the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Asthma Response

This St John Ambulance first aid training video shows you what signs to look out for and how to help someone having an asthma attack.

If you think someone may be having an asthma attack, it is important to know how to help them.

 

What is an asthma attack?

During an asthma attack, the muscles of the air passages in the lungs go into spasm. As a result, the airways become narrowed, which makes breathing more difficult. Sometimes there is a recognised trigger for an attack, such as a cold, a drug, cigarette smoke or an allergy. At other times, there is no obvious trigger.

 

Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • difficulty breathing
  •  
  • wheezing and coughing
  •  
  • distress and anxiety
  •  
  • difficulty speaking, shown through short sentences and whispering
  •  
  • signs of hypoxia such as grey-blue tinge to the lips, earlobes and nailbeds
  •  
  • exhaustion, in the case of a severe attack.

 

What to do

 

*Reassure the casualty

Ask them to take their usual dose of their reliever inhaler.

Ask them to breathe slowly and deeply.

  • If they have a spacer available, ask them to use it with their inhaler. The inhaler is more effective with a spacer when being used for young children.
  •  
  • If they have no inhaler call emergency for help.
  •  

*Sit them down in a comfortable position.

 

*Assess severity

A mild attack will normally ease after a few minutes. However, if they don’t improve within a few minutes, it may be a severe attack. Ask them to take one to two puffs of their inhaler every two minutes, until they have had 10 puffs. Help the casualty to use their inhaler if they need to.

 

*Call emergency for help if:

the attack is severe, and they are getting worse, becoming exhausted, or if this is their first attack.

 

*Monitor

Monitor their breathing and level of response. If the ambulance hasn’t arrived within 15 minutes, repeat step 3.

If they become unresponsive at any point prepare to give CPR.

 

You can find more information on the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

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