Abled.ALERT: WEATHER. Banner shows a photo of satellite photo of a hurricane formation over Florida. The red beacon for Emergency is lit up while beacons for the other categories are muted. Their photos are described on their category pages.

HURRICANE ALERTS

Abled.ALERT: Douglas. Satellite photo of Hurricane Douglas over the Pacific Ocean as it approaches the Hawaiian islands.
Abled.ALERT: Hanna. Storm tracker map showing the projected path of Hurricane Hanna making landfall in Texas from the Gulf of Mexico.
Abled.ALERT: Gonzalo. Map of projected path of Tropical Storm Gonzalo.

Hurricanes Summary

From the National Weather Service:

DOUGLAS:

Tropical Cyclone Douglas will impact the Hawaiian Islands into Monday with strong winds, heavy rainfall, flash flooding, storm surge, and dangerous surf.

A Hurricane Warning is in effect for:

* Maui County, including the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Kahoolawe

* Oahu * Kauai County, including the islands of Kauai and Niihau A Tropical Storm Warning is in effect for:

* Portions of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from Nihoa to French Frigate Shoals

A Tropical Storm Watch is in effect for:

* Portions of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from French Frigate Shoals to Maro Reef

A Hurricane Warning means that hurricane conditions are expected somewhere within the warning area, in this case within the next 18 hours.

A Tropical Storm Warning means that tropical storm conditions are expected somewhere within the warning area, in this case within the next 36 hours.

A Tropical Storm Watch means that tropical storm conditions are possible within the watch area, in this case within the next 36 to 48 hours.

On the forecast track, Douglas will pass near, or over, the islands from Maui to Kauai through tonight. Maximum sustained winds are near 85 mph (140 km/h) with higher gusts. Gradual weakening is forecast during the next 48 hours, but Douglas is expected to remain a hurricane as it moves through the islands. Hurricane-force winds extend outward up to 35 miles (55 km) from the center and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 115 miles (185 km).

HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND:

WIND: Hurricane conditions are expected in portions of Maui County today, on Oahu by late this afternoon, and on Kauai tonight. Due to the steep terrain of the islands, hurricane-force wind gusts are possible even within the tropical storm warning area.

SURF: Large swells generated by Douglas will affect the Hawaiian Islands into Monday, producing life-threatening and potentially damaging surf along exposed shores.

STORM SURGE: The combination of higher than predicted water levels, dangerous storm surge, and large breaking waves will raise water levels by as much as 3 feet above normal tides near the center of Douglas.

RAINFALL: Heavy rainfall associated with Douglas is expected to affect portions of the main Hawaiian Islands today into Monday. Total rain accumulations of 5 to 10 inches are possible from Maui County westward to Kauai County, with the greatest amounts up to 15 inches in elevated terrain. This rain may result in life-threatening flash flooding and land slides, as well as rapid water level rises on small streams. Douglas could produce an additional 2 to 4 inches of rainfall over the northern half of the Big Island.

 

HANNA:

Downgraded from hurricane strength, Tropical Storm Hanna to further weaken as it moves into Northeast Mexico; torrential rainfall and severe storms expected for South Texas.

Tropical cyclone Hanna has brought several inches of rain to South Texas as it made its way further inland today. Some of the highest observations so far have surpassed 12 to 14 inches.

Hanna is expected to weaken and dissipate over Mexico by early Tuesday morning but periods of 2 to 3 inch/hour rain rates may continue into Monday.

The additional rainfall will likely cause urban and river flooding across parts of the western Gulf Coast region, that could become life threatening especially from the southern Texas coast to the Lower Rio Grande Valley.

The concern for dangerous flooding in South Texas due to Hanna has maintained a High Risk for excessive rainfall through Sunday night. For more information on Hanna’s status and expected track, see advisories from the National Hurricane Center.

 

GONZALO:

Remnants of Gonzalo moving across the far southeast Caribbean.

Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 km/h) with higher gusts. Gusty conditions associated with squalls will be possible as the remnants of Gonzalo move westward.

HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND

WIND: Gusty conditions associated with squalls will be possible across portions of the southern Caribbean as the remnants of Gonzalo move westward during the next couple of days.

RAINFALL: The remnants of Gonzalo are expected to produce additional rainfall amounts of 1 to 2 inches, and isolated storm total amounts of 4 inches over far northeastern Venezuela through this evening. The system is also expected to produce 1 to 2 inches of rain over the Leeward Antilles and the remainder of far northern Venezuela. This includes Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao.

 

^close

The elderly are most at risk from Coronavirus. But children are affected too. What parents should know. Public service announcement for Unicef USA over a photo of a child washing hands with soap and water. Link to Unicef site.

CURATED EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDES

Abled.ALERT: What To Do" Emergency Response Guides. Image: Alert red beacon icon and photo of emergency vehicles with red lights flashing responding at night.

St John Ambulance Videos

Under the challenges of the current global COVID-19 pandemic, it may be difficult to get immediate help from first responders in an emergency.

If that emergency occurs in a public place, it may be impossible to get help from members of the public, even if they’re trained in first-aid because of fears of catching the SARS CoV-2 coronavirus.

We’ve curated some videos from St John Ambulance in England to provide quick demonstrations on what to do if you’re confronted by a medical emergency in someone at home, or outside your home.

Wikipedia explains that St John Ambulance is the name of a number of affiliated organizations in different countries which teach and provide first aid and emergency medical services, and are primarily staffed by volunteers. The associations are overseen by the international Order of St John and its priories (national branches).

The first such organisation to be founded was the St John Ambulance Association, which was founded in 1877 in England.

Elizabeth IIHead of the Commonwealth since 1952—is at the apex of the Order of Saint John as its Sovereign Head.

 

We hope you find the videos helpful and will consider a donation St John Ambulance at a time when we need them more than ever. Abled.com is not affiliated with the organization in any way and provides the donation links as a public service.

 

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Choking Response

If someone is choking, knowing how to help them could help save their life. In this video a St John Ambulance trainer shows you how to help an adult or child when they are choking.

If someone is unable to breathe and cannot cough out the blockage, you will need to help them slap or squeeze it out.

This St John Ambulance video will take you through the essential first aid steps.

 

What to do: Choking Adult

  1. *If you think someone is choking, ask them ‘Are you choking?’ If they can breathe, speak or cough then they might be able to clear their own throat. If they cannot breathe, cough, or make any noise, then they need your help straight away.
  2.  
  3. *Cough it out. Encourage them to cough and remove any obvious obstruction from their mouth.
  4.  
  5. *Slap it out. If coughing fails to work, you need to give five sharp back blows.To do this, help them to lean forwards, supporting their upper body with one hand.With the heel of your other hand give them five sharp back blows between their shoulder blades.After each back blow, check to see if there’s anything in their mouth.
  6.  
  7. *Squeeze it out. If back blows fail to clear the obstruction, give five abdominal thrusts.To do this, stand behind them and put your arms around their waist.Place one hand in a clenched fist between their belly button and the bottom of their chest.With your other hand, grasp your fist and pull sharply inwards and upwards up to five times. Check their mouth again, each time.
  8.  
  9. *If the blockage has not cleared, call your local emergency line for help straight away. Repeat five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until help arrives, re-checking their mouth each time. If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to start adult CPR

 

What to do: Choking Child

  1. *If you think a child is choking, ask them ‘Are you choking?’. If they can breathe, speak, or cough then they might be able to clear their own throat. If they cannot breathe, cough, or make any noise, then they need your help straight away.
  2.  
  3. *Cough it out. Encourage them to cough and remove any obvious obstruction from their mouth.
  4.  
  5. *Slap it out. If coughing fails to work, you need to give five sharp back blows. To do this, help them to lean forwards, supporting their upper body with one hand. With the heel of your other hand give them five sharp back blows between their shoulder blades.After each back blow, check their mouth and pick out any obvious obstruction. Do not sweep the mouth as this could push the object further down the throat.
  6.  
  7. *Squeeze it out. If back blows fail to clear the obstruction, give five abdominal thrusts. To do this, stand behind them and put your arms around the child’s waist. Place one hand in a clenched fist between their belly button and the bottom of their chest. With your other hand, grasp your fist and pull sharply inwards and upwards up to five times. Check their mouth again, each time.
  8.  
  9. *If the blockage has not cleared, call your local emergency line for help straight away. Repeat five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until help arrives, rechecking their mouth each time. If they become unresponsive at any point prepare to start child CPR.

 

What to do: Choking Baby

If you think the baby is choking then they need your help straight away. If they can breathe, are making noises, or coughing, then they may be able to clear their own throat.

  1. *Slap it out. If the baby cannot breathe, cry, or cough, they may be choking and you will need to give five back blows. Lay the baby face down along your forearm and thigh, making sure you support their head and neck. Give five sharp back blows between the shoulder blades with the heel of your hand.
  2.  
  3. *Turn them over on your thigh and check their mouth. Pick out any obvious obstructions you can see with your fingertips. Do not sweep the mouth as this could push the object further down the throat.
  4.  
  5. *Squeeze it out. If back blows fail to clear obstruction, give five chest thrusts with your baby facing upwards, making sure you’re supporting their head and neck. Put two fingers in the centre of their chest just below the nipple line and give five sharp chest thrusts.Check their mouth again, each time.
  6.  
  7. *Call your local emergency line for help if the obstruction hasn’t cleared. Take the baby with you to make the call.Keep repeating five back blows and five chest thrusts until help arrives, checking their mouth each time. If the baby becomes unresponsive at any point, prepare to start baby CPR.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Act FAST

A stroke is a medical emergency and you need to act fast. A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone is having a stroke and what to do to help.

Time is of the essence.

What to do

If you suspect someone is having a stroke, use  the FAST guide  to identify the key signs:

  1. F – stands for facial weakness.Look at  their mouth or eye – they  may be droopy, and they can’t smile evenly.

  2. A – arm weakness. Ask them to raise both of their arms. They may only be able to raise one. 

  3. S – speech problems. They are unable to speak clearly or might not be able to understand what you are saying to them. Ask them a question, such as ‘What is your name?’  Can they respond appropriately?

  4. T – time to call 999/112 in the UK or 911 in the USA and Canada for emergency help  and tell them you suspect a stroke after using the FAST guide.

  5. *While waiting for help to arrive, keep them comfortable, supported and reassure them. Do not give them anything to eat or drink because it may be hard for them to swallow.

  6. *Keep monitoring their level of response until help arrives. If they become unresponsive prepare to treat for an unresponsive casualty.

Find out more about what to do if someone is having a stroke and learn more about what a stroke is, causes, signs & symptoms at the St. John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Heart Attack Response

If you think someone is having a heart attack, knowing how to help them could be life saving.

In this video a St John Ambulance trainer shares signs of a heart attack and shows you how to care for someone having a heart attack.

Heart attacks are serious and performing these first aid steps could help to save someone’s life.

What is a heart attack?

A heart attack happens when the supply of blood to part of the heart is suddenly blocked, usually by a blood clot. You can make a full recovery following a heart attack, but this may depend on how much of the heart is affected.

Signs and symptoms

Someone having a heart attack may:

*have crushing pain in the centre of their chest, that may spread to their jaw, and down one or both arms.

*be breathless or gasping for breath.

*be sweating profusely.

*experience pain similar to indigestion.

*collapse without warning.

*complain of dizziness.

*have pale skin and their lips may have a blue tinge .

*have a rapid, weak or irregular pulse.

*have a feeling of impending doom.

What to do

  1. *Call 999 or 112 | 911 in the USA and Canada for emergency help straight away and tell them you think someone is having a heart attack.

  2. *Help move the casualty into a comfortable position. The best position is on the floor, with their knees bent and their head and shoulders supported. You could place cushions behind them or under their knees.

  3. *Give them one aspirin tablet (300mg) and ask them to chew it slowly. Do not give aspirin to the casualty if they are under 16 or if they are allergic to it.

  4. *Ask the casualty to take their own angina medication, if they have some.

  5. *Keep monitoring the casualty’s level of response until emergency help arrives.

    *If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to start CPR.

Find out more about what to do if someone is having a heart attack at the St. John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Adult CPR

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It combines chest compressions and rescue breaths to give a person the best chance of survival following a cardiac arrest.

We’ve updated our guidance due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Do not perform rescue breaths on the casualty.

If an adult is unresponsive and not breathing normally, you still need to call for emergency help and start CPR straight away.

 

What to do:

  1. *If you find someone collapsed, you should first perform a primary survey.  Do not place your face close to theirs. If you have established from this that they are unresponsive and not breathing, you should ask a helper to call the local emergency number for help while you start CPR. Ask a helper to find and bring a defibrillator, if available.
  2.  
  3. *Ask your helper to put the phone on speaker and hold it out towards you, so they can maintain a 2m distance. If you are on your own, use the hands-free speaker on a phone so you can start CPR while speaking to ambulance control. Do not leave the casualty to look for a defibrillator yourself. The ambulance will bring one.
  4.  
  5. *Before you start CPR, use a towel or piece of clothing and lay it over the mouth and nose of the casualty.Start CPR. Kneel by the casualty and put the heel of your hand on the middle of their chest. Put your other hand on top of the first. Interlock your fingers making sure they don’t touch the ribs.Keep your arms straight and lean over the casualty. Press down hard, to a depth of about 5-6cm before releasing the pressure, allowing the chest to come back up. The beat of the song “Staying Alive” can help you keep the right speedDo not give rescue breaths.
  6.  
  7. *Continue to perform CPR until:
    • *emergency help arrives and takes over
    • *the person starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally
    • *you are too exhausted to continue (if there is a helper, you can change over every one-to-two minutes, with minimal interruptions to chest compressions)
    • *defibrillator is ready to be used.
  8.  
  9. *If the helper returns with a defibrillator, ask them to switch it on and follow the voice prompts while you continue with CPR. Wherever possible, the helper should keep a distance of 2m.
  10.  
  11. *If the casualty shows signs of becoming responsive such as coughing, opening eyes, speaking, and starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. Monitor their level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary. If you have used a defibrillator, leave it attached.

You can find more information and illustrations on how to perform CPR on an adult at the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Baby CPR

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It combines chest compressions and rescue breaths to give a person the best chance of survival following a cardiac arrest.

We’ve updated our guidance due to the COVID-19 outbreak. It is vital that you perform rescue breaths as cardiac arrest in a baby is likely caused by a respiratory problem.

 

What to do:

  1. *After you have performed a primary survey, if you find that the baby is unresponsive and not breathing, you should ask a helper to call your local emergency number for help while you start CPR.
  2.  
    • *If you’re on your own, you need to give one minute of CPR before calling on a speakerphone.
    •  
    • *Do not leave the baby to make the call.
  3.  
  4. *Start CPR. Place them on a firm surface and open their airway. To do this, place one hand on their forehead and very gently tilt their head back. With your other hand, use your fingertip and gently lift the chin.
  5.  
  6. *Give five initial puffs. Take a breath and put your mouth around the baby’s mouth and nose to make a seal, and blow gently and steadily for up to one second. The chest should rise. Remove your mouth and watch the chest fall. That’s one rescue breath, or puff. Do this five times.
  7.  
    • *If their chest doesn’t rise, check the airway is open. Doing rescue breaths may increase the risk of transmitting the COVID-19 virus, either to the rescuer or the baby. This may be mitigated by placing a faceshield or pocket mask over the baby’s mouth.
    •  
  8. *It is vital that you perform rescue breaths as cardiac arrest in a baby is likely caused by a respiratory problem.

  9.  
  10. *You will then need to give 30 pumps. Put two fingers in the centre of the baby’s chest and push down a third of the depth of the chest. Release the pressure allowing the chest to come back up. Repeat this 30 times at a rate of 100 to 120 pumps per minute.
  11.  
  12. *You will then need to give 30 pumps. Put two fingers in the centre of the baby’s chest and push down a third of the depth of the chest. Release the pressure allowing the chest to come back up. Repeat this 30 times at a rate of 100 to 120 pumps per minute.
  13.  
    • *The beat of the song ‘Nellie the Elephant’ can help you keep the right rate. 
  14.  
  15. *After 30 pumps, open the airway and give two puffs. Keep alternating 30 pumps with two puffs (30:2) until:
  16.  
    • *emergency help arrives and takes over
    •  
    • *the baby starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally.
  17.  
  18. *If the baby shows signs of becoming responsive, such as, coughing, opening their eyes, making a noise, or starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. Monitor their level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary.

You can find more information and illustrations on how to perform CPR on a baby at the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Child CPR

If a child is unresponsive and not breathing, you will need to do CPR. In this video, a St John Ambulance trainer shows the steps & demonstrates how to do CPR on a child, and explains what to do if you’re helping the casualty alone, or with a helper.

Use the primary survey to quickly assess the situation and the casualty. Find out what to do.

 

What is CPR?

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

We’ve updated our guidance due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Rescue breaths must still be performed, as cardiac arrest in children is likely to be caused by a respiratory problem.

 

**If a child is unresponsive and not breathing normally, you still need to call 999 or 112 (UK) 911 (USA & Canada) for emergency help and start CPR straight away!

 

What to do

  1. After you have performed a primary survey, if you find that the child is unresponsive and not breathing you should ask a helper to call 999 or 112 for emergency help while you start CPR. Ask a helper to find and bring a defibrillator if available.

    If you are on your own, you need to give one minute of CPR before calling on a speaker phone.

  2.  
  3. Do not leave the child to make the call or to look for a defibrillator.
  4.  

    *Start CPR:

    Place them on a firm surface and open their airway. To do this, place one hand on their forehead to tilt their head back and use two fingers from the other hand to gently lift the chin.

     

  5. *Give 5 initial rescue breaths.

    Take the hand from the forehead and pinch the soft part of the nose closed, allowing the mouth to fall open.

    With the head still tilted, take a breath and put your mouth around the child’s, to make a seal.

    Blow into their mouth gently and steadily for up to one second, until the chest rises.

    Remove your mouth and watch the chest fall.

    That’s one rescue breath. Do this five times.

     

  6. *You will then need to give 30 chest compressions.

    Kneel by the child and put one hand in the centre of the child’s chest.

    Push down a third of the depth of the chest.

    Release the pressure allowing the chest to come back up.

    Repeat this 30 times at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions per minute.

    The beat of the song ‘Nellie the Elephant’ can help you keep the right rate.

  7.  

    *After 30 compressions, open the airway and give two breaths.

    Keep alternating 30 compressions with two breaths (30:2) until:

    • the child starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally
    • defibrillator is ready to be used.

    Doing rescue breaths may increase the risk of transmitting the COVID-19 virus, either to the rescuer or the child. This may be mitigated by placing a faceshield or pocket mask over the child’s mouth.

    **It is vital that you perform rescue breaths as cardiac arrest in a child is likely caused by a respiratory problem.

  8.  

    *If the helper returns with a defibrillator:

    Ask them to switch it on and follow the voice prompts while you continue with CPR.

  9. *If the child shows signs of becoming responsive:

    With actions such as such as coughing, opening eyes, speaking, and starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. Monitor their level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary.

    • If you have used a defibrillator, leave it attached.

     

    *You can find more information and illustrated examples at the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Bleeding Response

In this video, a St John Ambulance trainer explains what to do if someone is bleeding severely. When bleeding is severe, it can be dramatic and distressing. If someone’s bleeding isn’t controlled quickly, they may develop shock and become unresponsive.

Your priority is to stop the bleeding.

 

*What To Do

 

*Put on gloves

With open wounds, there’s a risk of infection, so wear protective first aid gloves (if available) to help prevent any infection passing between you both.

 

*Apply direct pressure to the wound:

Use a sterile dressing if possible or a clean non-fluffy cloth, to stop the bleeding.

  • If you don’t have a dressing you can ask the casualty to do this themselves.
  •  
  • If the wound is covered by the casualty’s clothing, remove or cut the clothes to uncover the wound.
  •  
  • If there’s an object in the wound, don’t pull it out. It may be acting as a plug to reduce the bleeding. Instead apply pressure on either side of the object to push the edges together.

 

*Ask a helper to call emergency

Give Ambulance Control details of where the wound is and the extent of the bleeding.

  • If you are on your own, use the hands-free speaker on a phone so that you can treat while speaking to ambulance control.
  •  

*Firmly secure the dressing:

Use a bandage to maintain pressure on the wound. Make it firm enough to maintain pressure but not so tight that it restricts their circulation.

 

*Check their circulation beyond the bandage.

Press one of the nails or the skin beyond the bandage for five seconds until it turns pale, then release the pressure. If the colour does not return within two seconds, the bandage is too tight. If necessary, loosen and reapply the bandage.

 

*Treat symptoms of shock.

The loss of blood could cause the casualty to develop shock. Treat them for this by helping them to lie down, on a rug or blanket. Raise and support their legs, so they are above the level of their heart. You should then loosen any tight clothing around their neck, chest and waist and cover the casualty with a blanket to keep them warm.

 

*If bleeding shows through the pad or dressing, don’t remove it.

Apply a second dressing on top of the first. If blood seeps through both dressings, remove both and replace with a fresh dressing. When changing dressings, keep pressure applied to the bleeding site.

 

Support the injured part with a sling or bandage.

Keep checking the circulation beyond the bandage every 10 minutes.

 

*Monitor:

Keep monitoring their level of response until help arrives. If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to start CPR.

 

You can learn more and see illustrations at the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Burn Response

In this video, a St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to do if someone has suffered a burn or scald and shares signs to identify a burn or scald.

Burns and scalds are damages to the skin caused by heat.

A burn is usually caused by dry heat, like fire, a hot iron, or sunshine.

A scald is caused by wet heat, like steam or a hot cup of tea.

Your priority is to cool the burn as quickly as possible.

 

Signs and symptoms

 

*Look for:

  • red skin and swelling
  •  
  • pain in the area of the burn
  •  
  • blistering may start to appear.

 

What to do:

 

*Start cooling the burn or scald as quickly as possible.

Hold it under cool running water for at least 10 minutes or until the pain feels better. If there is no water available, you could use cold milk or canned drinks.

 

*Remove:

Remove any jewellery or clothing, unless stuck to the burn, before the area begins to swell.

 

*When the burn has cooled:

Cover the area loosely with cling film, lengthways. Do not wrap the cling film around the burn as the area needs space to swell.

  • If the burn is on a foot or hand you could use a clean plastic bag.
  •  
  • Do not use ice, creams or gels. They may cause damage and increase the risk of infection.
  •  
  • Do not break any blisters that may appear, as this may cause infection.

 

*Monitor the casualty. Seek medical advice.

 

More information and illustrations are available on the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Seizure Response

A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone is having a seizure, what causes a seizure and what to do to help.

 

What are seizures and what causes seizures?

In adults, the most common cause of a seizure, also known as a convulsion or fit, is epilepsy. However, it can be caused by other things, including a head injury, alcohol poisoning, lack of oxygen, after taking certain drugs, or if someone with diabetes has a ‘hypo’ where their blood glucose is too low.

Epilepsy is a condition that affects the brain and can cause repeated seizures, which are often sudden and dramatic.

 

Signs and symptoms

 

*Look for:

 

  • sudden loss of responsiveness
  •  
  • a rigid body with an arching back
  •  
  • noisy, difficult breathing
  •  
  • grey blue tinge on the lips
  •  
  • start of jerky uncontrolled movements (uncontrolled)
  •  
  • saliva at the mouth, possibly blood stained if they have bitten their tongue or lip
  •  
  • loss of bladder or bowel control.

 

What to do

 

*Protect the casualty

With any seizure, it is important to first protect the casualty from harming themselves during the fit. Ask any bystanders to stand back and clear away any potentially dangerous objects, like hot drinks or sharp objects. Make a note of the time that the seizure started.

  • Do not restrain the casualty or move them unless they are in immediate danger.
  •  
  • Do not put anything in their mouth.

 

*Protect their head.

You could place soft padding underneath it, such as a rolled-up towel. You should also loosen any clothing around their neck.

 

*Check breathing.

When any jerky movements have stopped, open their airway and check their breathing. If they are breathing put them in the recovery position.

 

*Monitor:

Monitor their level of response and make a note of how long the seizure lasted. If they become unresponsive at any time, prepare to emergency and give CPR.

 

*Call emergency if:

 

  • it is the casualty’s first seizure
  •  
  • they are having repeated seizures
  •  
  • the cause of the seizure is unknown
  •  
  • the seizure continues for more than five minutes
  •  
  • the casualty is unresponsive for more than 10 minutes
  •  
  • they have an injury on another part of the body.
  •  

You can find more information and illustrations on the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Allergic Response

A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone has suffered a severe allergic reaction, such as an allergy rash and what to do to help to avoid anaphylactic shock.

 

What is an allergy?

An allergy is an abnormal reaction to an allergen or ‘trigger’ substance.

One of the most common allergens is plant pollen, which often causes hay fever. Other allergens include animal hair, bee stings, medication (especially penicillin), and food, such as nuts and shellfish.

 

What is a severe allergic reaction?

A severe allergic reaction can develop just seconds after someone comes into contact with the allergen. It can affect the whole body, and if it’s not treated quickly enough it could be fatal. This is called anaphylactic shock.

 

Signs and symptoms

 

*Look for: 

  • a red, itchy rash, or raised area of skin (weals)
  •  
  • red, itchy, watery eyes
  •  
  • swelling of hands, feet, or face
  •  
  • abdominal pain, vomiting, or diarrhoea.

There may also be:

  • difficulty in breathing
  •  
  • swelling of tongue and throat with puffiness around eyes
  •  
  • confusion and agitation
  •  
  • signs of shock leading to collapse and unresponsiveness.

 

What to do

 

*Call emergency immediately

Tell ambulance control that you suspect a severe allergic reaction.

 

*Check for auto-injector

If someone’s having a severe allergic reaction, then they may have medication, like an auto-injector. This is a pre-filled injection device containing adrenaline which when injected, can help reduce the body’s allergic reaction. 

Check if they have one, and if they do, help them to use it or do it yourself following the instructions.

 

*Monitor

Help them to get comfortable and monitor their breathing and level of response.

Repeated doses of adrenaline can be given at five-minute intervals if there is no improvement or the symptoms return.

 

You can find more information at the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Diabetic Response

A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone is having a diabetic emergency and what to do to help if you suspect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.

 

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a long-term medical condition where the body cannot produce enough insulin. Sometimes those who have diabetes may have a diabetic emergency, where their blood sugar level becomes too high or too low. Both conditions could be serious and may need treatment in hospital.

Insulin is a chemical produced by the pancreas (that lies behind the stomach). It regulates the blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body. When someone has diabetes, their body cannot keep the blood sugar level within the normal range. Their level can be higher or lower than normal blood sugar.

There are two types of diabetes:

  • Type 1, known as insulin dependent diabetes
  •  
  • Type 2, non-insulin dependent diabetes.

Someone with diabetes may have items with them which could lead you to suspect that they have diabetes:

  • they may be wearing a medical warning bracelet or necklace
  •  
  • they may be carrying glucose gel or glucose tablets
  •  
  • they could have medication, such as an insulin pen, a special pump or tablets and a glucose testing kit.

 

Hyperglycemia – High Blood Sugar

This is where the blood sugar level is higher than normal. It may be caused by a person with diabetes who has not had the correct dose of medication. They may have eaten too much sugary or starchy food or, they may be unwell with an infection.

 

*Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • warm, dry skin
  •  
  • rapid pulse and breathing
  •  
  • fruity, sweet breath
  •  
  • excessive thirst
  •  
  • drowsiness, leading them to become unresponsive if not treated (also known as a diabetic coma)
  •  
  • medical warning jewellery or medication.

 

What to do

 

Call 999 or 112 in the UK | 911 in the US or Canada.

If you suspect hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar), they need urgent treatment. Call 999 or 112 for emergency help and say that you suspect hyperglycaemia.

They may be wearing a medical bracelet or medallion, or have a card on them which can alert you to their condition.

 

*Check breathing & pulse.

While you wait for help to arrive, keep checking their breathing, pulse and whether they respond to you. If they become unresponsive at any point, open their airway, check their breathing and prepare to start CPR.

 

Hypoglycemia – Low Blood Sugar

This is where the blood sugar level is lower than normal. It can be caused by an imbalance between the level of insulin and the level of glucose in the blood. Someone with diabetes may recognise the onset of a hypoglycemic episode.

 

Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • weakness, faintness or hunger
  •  
  • confusion and irrational behaviour
  •  
  • sweating with cold, clammy skin
  •  
  • rapid pulse
  •  
  • palpitations
  •  
  • trembling or shaking
  •  
  • deteriorating level of response
  •  
  • medical warning jewellery or medication.

 

What to do

 

*Give something sweet

If you suspect hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), help the person to sit down. If they have their own glucose gel or glucose tablets, help them take it. If not, you need to give them something sugary, such as a 150ml | 5 oz glass of fruit juice or non-diet fizzy drink; three teaspoons of sugar or sugar lumps; or three sweets such as jelly babies.

 

*Monitor and repeat if necessary

If they improve quickly, give them more of the sugary food or drink and let them rest. If they have their blood glucose testing kit with them, help them use it to check their blood sugar level. Stay with them until they feel completely better.

 

*Call emergency if needed

If they do not improve quickly, look for any other reason why they could be unwell and call emergency for help.

 

*Monitor

Keep monitoring their breathing and level of response while waiting for help to arrive.

  • If they are not fully alert, don’t try to give them something to eat or drink as they may choke.
  •  
  • If they become unresponsive at any point, open their airway, check their breathing and prepare to give CPR.

 

You can find more information on this at the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Asthma Response

This St John Ambulance first aid training video shows you what signs to look out for and how to help someone having an asthma attack.

If you think someone may be having an asthma attack, it is important to know how to help them.

 

What is an asthma attack?

During an asthma attack, the muscles of the air passages in the lungs go into spasm. As a result, the airways become narrowed, which makes breathing more difficult. Sometimes there is a recognised trigger for an attack, such as a cold, a drug, cigarette smoke or an allergy. At other times, there is no obvious trigger.

 

Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • difficulty breathing
  •  
  • wheezing and coughing
  •  
  • distress and anxiety
  •  
  • difficulty speaking, shown through short sentences and whispering
  •  
  • signs of hypoxia such as grey-blue tinge to the lips, earlobes and nailbeds
  •  
  • exhaustion, in the case of a severe attack.

 

What to do

 

*Reassure the casualty

Ask them to take their usual dose of their reliever inhaler.

Ask them to breathe slowly and deeply.

  • If they have a spacer available, ask them to use it with their inhaler. The inhaler is more effective with a spacer when being used for young children.
  •  
  • If they have no inhaler call emergency for help.
  •  

*Sit them down in a comfortable position.

 

*Assess severity

A mild attack will normally ease after a few minutes. However, if they don’t improve within a few minutes, it may be a severe attack. Ask them to take one to two puffs of their inhaler every two minutes, until they have had 10 puffs. Help the casualty to use their inhaler if they need to.

 

*Call emergency for help if:

the attack is severe, and they are getting worse, becoming exhausted, or if this is their first attack.

 

*Monitor

Monitor their breathing and level of response. If the ambulance hasn’t arrived within 15 minutes, repeat step 3.

If they become unresponsive at any point prepare to give CPR.

 

You can find more information on the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

Abled.Networks: Directory banner set against a curved bank of monitors in a control room blended into a starry sky above the curve of the Earth. Each network is represented by a different name and color and their image is described in each module on our About page.

Content in Production

Vintage 1900 photo inside a letterpress printing shop's layout and design area.

We were in the midst of our site wide design upgrade when the COVID-19 pandemic hit.

We decided to pivot to provide an unbiased and fact-based knowledge hub to enable everyone to gather additional information needed for making self-informed decisions on how to respond to the life-changing challenges posed by the pandemic.

Our effort to be as up to date as possible in the COVID-19 coverage, and the resulting pandemic impact on available resources, has pulled time away from our overall build-out.

So if you encounter a non-working link or a “Content In Production” message, we appreciate your patience as we do our best to complete our upgrades.

Abled.ALERT link button. Photo of a view of a giant whirl of clouds from Tropical Storm Cristobal above Florida.
Abled.ALERT-COVID-19: Alert icon over map of part of the United States fill with red dots representing the size of COVID-19 infections in each state.
Abled.City Directory link. Photo of the Manhattan skyline with sun-kissed clouds and buildings with the Empire State Building in the center.
Abled.Health link banner shows middle aged couple doing yoga on cushions with the ocean in the background.
Abled.Issues Directory link: Photo of people protesting at night in New York City carrying signs that read "Disabled Lives Matter" and "Black Disabled Lives Matter" along with other signs.
Abled.Life Directory Link: Photo of a woman in a white top and green pants leaping above a grassy hill while holding a green banner.
Abled.Money Directory link. Digital image of different global currency icons shooting out from a blurred image of a trading software screen.
Abled.News Directory link. Photo of a mass protest on a downtown city street with people holding signs reading "Enough is enough", "Silence is Violence", "Racism is the real virus" and "Black trans lives matter".
Abled.People Directory link. Photo of Jazz icon Ella Fitzgerald sitting next to screen icon Marilyn Monroe as they chat at the Mocambo nightclub in Hollywood.
Abled.Sports Directory link. Image: Poster for "At Home Superheroes powered by Marvell" in the UK> Illustrated image of variously Abled people standing in front of their houses on a poster that has emanating rays from the center.
Abled.Tech Directory link. Computer generated image showing glowing lines connecting recognition points of the outline of a human face to represent virtual ID Scanning.
Abled.Travel Directory link. Photo of Santa Monica Beach at dusk with the Santa Monic Pier all lit up and silhouetted palm trees set against the orange and purple sky above the mountains in the distance.

Abled® is a Registered Trademark and Wordmark of The Laura And Wagner Foundation.

All materials © 2020 Abled.com and their respective owners.

All Rights Reserved.

Abled.com hosting is provided by myhosting.com. An Ingram Micro Company. Cloud hosting simplified. Trusted by small businesses worldwide since 1997. Click here to go to the myhosting.com website.
Back to Top