Abled.ALERT: EMERGENCY. Banner shows a photo of emergency vehicles with flashing red lights at night. The red beacon for Emergency is lit up while beacons for the other categories are muted. Their photos are described on their category pages.

EMERGENCY: HURRICANE LAURA

Abled.ALERT: Satellite image of Hurricane Laura making landfall in Texas and Louisiana.

USA: Unsurvivable Storm Surge

Abled.ALERT: Map of expected coastal Hurricane Laura storm surge from Texas to Mississippi.

Gulf Coast officials are warning people to get out of Hurricane Laura’s path because the expected storm surge could reach an “unsurvivable” 20 feet in parts of Texas and Louisiana as it makes landfall overnight as a potentially catastrophic Category 5.

Laura Almost Category 5

Only 7 mph from Category 5

U.S. President Donald Trump summed it up in a nutshell in a tweet earlier on Wednesday: “”Hurricane Laura is a very dangerous and rapidly intensifying hurricane.”

Intensifying so rapidly that it is only 7 mph away from a Category 5 Hurricane, as it bears down on the U.S. Gulf Coast with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph.

Never before has a Category 5 hurricane made landfall in Texas,  and the last Category 5 to make landfall in Louisiana was Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

Over half a million people have been ordered to evacuate, and many former shelters are acting as co-ordination intake centers as people are transferred to area hotels and motels because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) has warned that unsurvivable storm surge with large and destructive waves will cause catastrophic damage from Sea Rim State Park, Texas, to Intracoastal City, Louisiana, including Calcasieu and Sabine Lakes. This surge could penetrate up to 40 miles inland from the immediate coastline.

During a Category 4, the NHC paints the following frightening scenario: Well-built framed homes can sustain severe damage with loss of most of the roof structure and/or some exterior walls.

Most trees will be snapped or uprooted, and power poles downed. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas.

Power outages will last weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.”

In addition to the storm surge warning, here are the other Key Messages the NHC has issued for Hurricane Laura:

WIND: Hurricane conditions are expected in the hurricane warning area tonight and Thursday, with catastrophic wind damage
expected where Laura's eyewall moves onshore tonight. Tropical storm conditions are moving onshore along the coast of
Louisiana within the tropical storm warning area and are expected to spread northwestward within the warning areas
this evening.

Hurricane-force winds and damaging wind gusts are also expected to spread well inland into portions of eastern Texas and
western Louisiana early Thursday.

RAINFALL: From this evening through Friday, Laura is expected to produce the following rainfall totals:

Across the northwestern Gulf Coast from far southwest Louisiana and the Golden Triangle of Southeast Texas: 8 to 12 inches
with isolated totals of 18 inches.

Across central and the rest of western Louisiana into far eastern Texas: 5 to 10 inches with isolated totals of 15 inches.

Across much of Arkansas: 3 to 7 inches with isolated totals of 10 inches.

This rainfall will cause widespread flash and urban flooding, small streams and creeks to overflow their banks, and minor
to moderate freshwater river flooding.

By Friday into Saturday, Laura is expected to produce the following rainfall totals:

Across the mid-Mississippi and portions of the Tennessee Valley, Lower Ohio Valley, and central Appalachians: 2 to 4 inches
with isolated maximum amounts of 6 inches.

This rainfall may lead to flash and urban flooding and rapid rises
on small streams.

Across the Mid-Atlantic Region: 1 to 3 inches.

TORNADOES: Several tornadoes are expected this evening through tonight over Louisiana, far southeast Texas, and
southwestern Mississippi. The risk for a few tornadoes will continue into Thursday across Louisiana, Arkansas, and western
Mississippi.

SURF:  Swells produced by Laura are affecting the U.S. Gulf coast from the west coast of Florida to Texas and northeastern
Mexico.These swells are likely to cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions.

Landfall for Hurricane Laura is still anticipated between 2 a.m. and 4 a.m. ET.

We’ve curated a number of videos following the path of Hurricane Laura below.

And here’s the latest timeline for conditions in some key locations:

Beaumont and Port Arthur, Texas

  • Tropical storm winds (39 mph+): 9 p.m. ET Wednesday to 9 a.m. ET Thursday
  • Hurricane force winds (75 mph+): 12 a.m. ET to 5 a.m. ET Thursday
  • Peak winds gusts: 110-120 mph
  • Total rainfall expected: 6 to 8 inches
  • Peak storm surge: 10-15 feet
  • High tide: 3 a.m. ET to 4 a.m. ET Thursday

Galveston, Texas

  • Tropical storm winds (39 mph+): 8 p.m. ET Wednesday to 4 a.m. ET Thursday
  • Hurricane force winds (75 mph+): Not expected – but peak winds between 11 p.m. ET and 2 a.m. ET
  • Peak winds gusts: 45-55 mph
  • Total rainfall expected: 1-3 inches
  • Peak storm surge: 2 to 4 feet
  • High tide: 2 a.m. ET to 3 a.m. ET Thursday

Houston, Texas

  • Tropical storm winds (39 mph+): 8 p.m. ET Wednesday to 4 a.m. ET Thursday
  • Hurricane force winds (75 mph+): Not expected
  • Peak winds gusts: 35-45 mph
  • Total rainfall expected: less than 2 inches
  • Peak storm surge: 3 to 5 feet (along coastal Harris/Galveston Bay)
  • High tide: 7 a.m. ET Thursday

Lake Charles, Louisiana 

  • Tropical storm winds (39 mph+): 9 p.m. ET Wednesday to 10 a.m. ET Thursday
  • Hurricane force winds (75 mph+): 12 a.m. ET to 7 a.m. ET Thursday (peak between 2 a.m. ET and 5 a.m. ET)
  • Peak winds gusts: 110-120+ mph
  • Total rainfall expected: 7-10 inches
  • Peak storm surge:15 to 20 feet
  • High tide: 6 a.m. ET Thursday

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Live In Beaumont TX

Will Hurricane Laura make landfall as a Category 4  or Category 5 storm along the Texas, Louisiana coast?

Here’s a livestream from 12NewsNow in Beaumont, Texas.

 

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Laura Makes Landfall

Hurricane Laura is making landfall on the Gulf States of Texas and Louisiana teetering on the edge of a Category 5 storm.

Here is another livestream, this one from WFAA, the ABC affiliate in Dallas, Texas.

 

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Storm Surge Simulation

Hurricane Laura is expected to bring as high as 20 feet of storm surge to parts of Louisiana and Texas.

THIS is why it’s so important to listen to evacuation orders.

This video is from The Weather Channel.

 

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TX Evacuation Centers

Texas Governor Greg Abbott (R) announces the opening of 4 evacuation centers in advance of Hurricane Laura making landfall.

This video is from kxan the NBC affiliate in Austin, Texas.

 

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Evacuation Protocols

New Rules During A Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced new approaches to mass evacuations. No longer is it possible to cluster evacuees together in large convention halls.

Many people are being booked into hotels and motels, and even the buses evacuating them have had to implement social distancing in their small spaces.

More on all this from ABC affiliate WFAA in Dallas, Texas.

 

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Evacuation Essentials

The challenge of evacuating hundreds of thousands of people can be daunting during any emergency, but when it happens during an unprecedented global pandemic, it takes incredible pre-planning and logistics co-ordination.

Lessons learned from previous Hurricane emergencies also come into play. The Houston Fire Department, for example, considers itself to be in good shape because, in the wake of Hurricane Harvey, they’ve added 10 high-water rescue vehicles, and have an 80-member water strike team ready to deploy with 20 boats and  jet skis.

But fire officials also want citizens to be prepared, and to that end, ABC13 Houston‘s Brhe Berry has some tips on how to prepare your own hurricane kit.

 

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EMERGENCY: CA FIRES RED FLAG WARNING

Abled.ALERT: EMERGENCY: California wildfires. Photo of residential area at night with mountains in the background lit up by wildfires turning the smoke in the sky red and orange.

USA: CA Fires UPDATE

Abled.ALERT: Volunteer inmate firefighters bolster the front lines in California as a troop of them walks single file along a road with an active wildfire to their right.

Firefighters and equipment arriving from out of state and voluntary inmate firefighters got a bit of a break in battling California’s wildfires as cooler temperatures and higher humidity improved some containment, but new evacuations were ordered elsewhere.

Progress But New Threats

Massive Losses and Damage

The numbers are staggering. More than 12 thousand lightning strikes have sparked over 600 fires in California, burning over a million acres, forcing tens of thousands of people to flee and fill evacuation centers to capacity.

About a thousand of them won’t have a home to go back to.

And new evacuation orders have been issued for Yolo County as containment increased to 33% on the LNU Lightning Complex Fire which was ignited by thousands of lightning strikes.

Red Flag Warning Lifted

The warning had been issued for the entire San Francisco Bay Area and the Central Coast of California through to 5 PM Monday because of the potential for dry lightning and gusty erratic outflow winds up to 65 mph from scattered thunderstorms.

Cooler weather, higher humidity and more firefighters joining the effort from out of state helped to improve containment in some areas.

Fire Crews Battle 24/7

Cal Fire estimates there are about 14 thousand firefighters battling the blazes around the clock, supplemented by crews from out of state.

On Saturday, California Governor Gavin Newsom announced the White House had granted his request for a Presidential Major Disaster Declaration, which opens the valve for federal funds to flow into the relief effort.

We’ve curated a number of videos, including the updated briefing from Cal Fire and the following update from ABC 10 in Sacramento.

 

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+1M Acres Burning

A break in the weather in California’s wine country is allowing firefighters and utility crews to start clearing residential areas of fire debris as evacuations in the Napa and Sonoma counties are lifted.

However, new evacuations were ordered in Yolo County as a fire crossed a highway. ABC 10 in Sacramento provides an update on some of the largest wildfires in California history.

 

 

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Agonizing Choices

CZU Complex Firefight: Area Residents Defy Evacuation Orders

Residents in California’s Santa Cruz Mountains say there aren’t enough firefighters, so they’re faced with the agonizing decision of whether to evacuate or stay to try and protect their property by fighting the fires themselves.

Da Lin of CBS San Francisco Bay Area affiliate KPIX reports.

 

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Horses Lost

This is heartbreaking — Marrissa Dorough fought through tears as she told ABC7 News about the worst night of her life.

On Tuesday, the 28-year-old nurse, who has been on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic, found herself instead on the front lines of the LNU Lightning Complex fires.

Despite every effort by Marrissa and her friends, the fire was too much and too dangerous to cope with.

She learned the next morning five of her six horses had perished from the flames.

More on her heartbreaking story at ABC7 News Bay Area

 

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EMERGENCY: SAFETY ALERT

USA: Protests Become Riots

Abled.ALERT: Emergency: Safety Alert. Image: Video still frame of a police officer spraying tear gas at protestors in Minneapolis on a sunny afternoon.

Protests in major cities across the U.S. over the police custody death of George Floyd turn into violent riots as law enforcement and National Guard troops respond with force. We’ve compiled tips on staying safe when a peaceful protest escalates.

Riot Survival Tips

Millions of Americans have been outraged by the death of George Floyd, a 44 year-old African American man who died in Minneapolis after white police officer Derek Chauvin knelt on his neck for almost nine minutes while three other officers helped restrain Floyd, after he was arrested for trying to pass a fake $20 bill.

Onlookers beseeched Chauvin to remove his knee, especially after Floyd gasped ” I can’t breathe . . . don’t kill me.”

George Floyd died despite paramedics’ attempts to revive him. After a public outcry, the four police officers were eventually fired, and Chauvin has been arrested and charged with third-degree murder and manslaughter.

With echoes of the 2014 death of Eric Garner, another African American man who died in a police chokehold in Staten Island, New York, the backlash was immediate as protestors took to the streets in Minneapolis and other major cities across the United States.

The initial demonstrations were peaceful but later degenerated into riots, looting and burning with police using tear gas and rubber bullets.

Minnesota officials are blaming outside ‘agitators’ for hijacking peaceful demonstrations, a claim that’s also been made in other cities when demonstrations against something like a G20 summit turn violent.

Trevor Hughes has taken a detailed look at the claim at USA Today.

The deaths of other African Americans at the hands of police in the wake of George Floyd’s death have triggered ongoing protests, many of them violent, in Seattle, Portland and more recently in Kenosha, Wisconsin.

We’ve curated some videos below that carry some powerful words from the Mayor of Atlanta and a rapper who comes from a police family, both of whom have been praised for their ‘words of wisdom’ and tough love.

 

How to protect yourself when a peaceful demonstration escalates into violence

We’ve compiled some information from a number of sources on the best things to do if you’re out and get overtaken by, or are participating in a protest that starts to turn ugly and violent.

Plan ahead: Know your surroundings and set meeting places if with a group

Go online and use Google Earth to familiarize yourself with the area you’re going to be in. If indoors, make a note of exits and emergency exits and parking lots. And avoid bottlenecks or narrow areas where there  may be a higher risk of people getting trampled if things go badly. If with a group, set a meeting place in case people get separated.

Stay on the edge of the crowd

Agitators usually move to the front of protest crowds, so you’ll want to stay back and on the periphery so that you can make a quick exit on a side street or alleyway.

Don’t stand out

Wear muted colors and don’t call attention to yourself. Keep your head down and try to blend-in.

If things turn violent, don’t panic

Stay calm and quickly leave the area. Trust your intuition and if, necessary, run as fast as you can to stay ahead of the crowd. Be careful to watch your step so that you don’t trip and fall, which could be potentially fatal in a large mob.

Avoid confronting police or other protestors

Stay as far away from law enforcement as possible, and don’t retaliate if you get shoved or hit by other protestors, just get out of there. Pack pepper spray if you feel you need a deterrent, but packing a gun or knife could be deadly if you’re overpowered by someone who could use them against you.

Avoid tear gas or rubber bullets

Tear gas stays low to the ground, so get to higher ground if you can, or a multi-story building or car park if nearby. If stronger deterrents are used, just get out of the area as quickly as you can. Our earlier advice about staying far away from the police should lessen your risk.

Find shelter

Again a nearby building, car park or basement may provide temporary protection from a protest gone wild.

Have cash on hand

Having $20 to $40 with you (and be mindful of pickpockets) in case you need to hop on a bus or hail a taxi or ride-share or pay-off looters. These situations can r4eally be “your money or your life” in worst-case scenarios.

Here are a few links to additional information you might find helpful:

How To  Stop A Riot | Survival LifeDr. Bones Nurse Amy | What Tear Gas Does To Your Body | Surviving Civil Unrest While Driving

 

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Tough Love

Atlanta Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms has garnered praise from many people for expressing what some have termed ” a black mom’s tough love” in calling for protestors to “go home’, after another night of rioting in the city.

In a powerful address, she called-out the demonstrators who set fire to a police car and vandalized a sign at the CNN Center. “What I see happening on the streets of Atlanta is not Atlanta,” she said.

This video is from CNN.

 

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"Don't Burn Your Own House"

Another person winning respect for his words of anger, frustration and sadness is Atlanta-born rapper Killer Mike.

Mike Render comes from a family of police officers, but said witnessing George Floyd’s death made him “mad as hell”.

He joined Atlanta Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms, Police Chief Erika Sheilds and fellow rapper T.I., and offered non-violent ways to approach the national protests.

This video is from CBS News.

 

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Years Of Outrage

ABC News reporter Steve Osunsami examines the long history of riots in the United States sparked by racial discrimination.

And he gets important insights from the eldest son of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

 

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EMERGENCY: MEDICAL ALERT

GLOBAL: MIS-C In Children

Abled.ALERT: Composite images show the symptoms of Kawasaki Syndrome in children including a child's back covered in a rash, bloodshot eyes, strawberry-colored tongue and red, cracked lips, red palms/soles and swollen hands/feet.

The CDC has issued a guidance for parents on the condition now being called Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) related to COVID-19 infection. Symptoms resemble those of Kawasaki Disease, and parents are being urged to be vigilant.

CDC Advisory

CDC ADVISORY: What we know about MIS-C

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a condition where different body parts can become inflamed, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal organs. We do not yet know what causes MIS-C. However, we know that many children with MIS-C had the virus that causes COVID-19, or had been around someone with COVID-19. MIS-C can be serious, even deadly, but most children who were diagnosed with this condition have gotten better with medical care.

What to do if you think your child is sick with MIS-C

Contact your child’s doctor, nurse, or clinic right away if your child is showing symptoms of MIS-C:

  • Fever
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Neck pain
  • Rash
  • Bloodshot eyes
  • Feeling extra tired

Be aware that not all children will have all the same symptoms.

Seek emergency care right away if your child is showing any of these emergency warning signs of MIS-C or other concerning signs:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Pain or pressure in the chest that does not go away
  • New confusion
  • Inability to wake or stay awake
  • Bluish lips or face
  • Severe abdominal pain

How doctors will care for your child

Doctors may do certain tests to look for inflammation or other signs of disease. These tests might include:

  • Blood tests
  • Chest x-ray
  • Heart ultrasound (echocardiogram)
  • Abdominal ultrasound

Doctors may provide supportive care for symptoms (medicine and/or fluids to make your child feel better) and may use various medicines to treat inflammation. Most children who become ill with MIS-C will need to be treated in the hospital. Some will need to be treated in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU).

Parents or caregivers who have concerns about their child’s health, including concerns about COVID-19  or MIS-C,  should call a pediatrician or other healthcare provider immediately. Healthcare providers can follow CDC recommendations to keep children and their parents or caregivers safe if an in-person visit is needed.

What we don’t know about MIS-C

CDC is still learning about MIS-C and how it affects children, so we don’t know why some children have gotten sick with MIS-C and others have not. We also do not know if children with certain health conditions are more likely to get MIS-C. These are among the many questions CDC is working to try to understand.

All CDC recommendations are based on the best data and science available at the time, and we will update them as we learn more.

What CDC is doing to learn more

CDC has a team dedicated to investigate MIS-C and gather and communicate information quickly to healthcare providers, parents and caregivers, as well as state and local health departments. The team is working with U.S. and international scientists, healthcare providers, and other partners to learn more about this new syndrome. They are learning about how often it happens and who is likely to get it, creating a system to track cases, and providing guidance to parents and healthcare providers.

 

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COVID Link Confirmed

UPDATED Information is highlighted:

 

Case reports are coming in from around the world as more children develop what may be a COVID-19 related illness that shows symptoms common in Kawasaki Disease and Toxic Shock syndrome.

It’s now being referred to as “PIMS-TS – Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 ” but the scientists quoted in the update from the MailOnline story below say the definition of the last part of the acronym should be “triggered by SARS-CoV-2”.      

Three children have died of the illness in New York State (and officials are awaiting test results from two additional deaths last weekend) . A total of 73 110 cases have now been reported in the state.

New Jersey has confirmed 17 cases, and 16 other states are reporting cases.

Doctors in Montreal are studying 20 cases in Canadian children, and scientists are examining a similar number of cases in the U.K., as well as earlier cases in Italy and Spain.

The children are not suffering the respiratory distress that many adult patients develop. They are being ravaged by the so-called “cytokine storm” – the over-reaction of the body’s immune system and it’s triggering a “multi-system inflammatory state” that attacks multiple organs, weakens blood vessels and the lining of the heart.

In all cases, the children have tested positive for SARS CoVid-2 antibodies.

Most of them are toddlers to elementary school age, however a previously healthy 14 year-old boy in the U.K. died of a stroke after being admitted to hospital. And at least seven other cases at the hospital where he was treated involved children who were clinically obese and from minority ethnic backgrounds.

 

UPDATE:

In an exclusive, The MailOnline, is reporting that a UK team of scientists in Birmingham, have found the first clear evidence that the “Kawasaki-like illness” IS caused by the SARS CoV-2 virus several weeks after being infected when symptoms start to show.

The MailOnline writes: “The syndrome affecting children has been tentatively called PIMS-TS, for ‘paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2’. However, the British scientists say the condition’s definition is incorrect as it is not ‘temporally associated’ with the pandemic but is instead ‘triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The team of scientists led by Dr Alex Richter and Professor Adam Cunningham of the University of Birmingham studied eight young patients who were admitted to hospital between April 28 and May 8. All of the children tested negative in the traditional lab-based test used to diagnose COVID-19 in adults.

However, a custom-built antibody test revealed the young patients had been infected with the coronavirus and produced antibodies to fight off the pathogen. 

Six of the patients required admission into paediatric intensive care due to heart-related issues and low blood pressure brought on by the disease.

All showed positive signs after treatment and have since been discharged from ICU.”

Read the full report at the MailOnline

 

SYMPTOMS TO WATCH FOR:

New York Governor Andrew Cuomo released the following advisory for parents:

Remain Vigilant. Seek care immediately if your child has:

*Prolonged fever (more than 5 days)

*Difficulty feeding (infants) or is too sick to drink fluids

*Severe abdominal pain, diarrhea or vomiting

*Change in skin color – becoming pale, patchy and/or blue

*Trouble breathing or is breathing very quickly

*Racing heart or chest pain

*Decreased amount or frequency of urine

*Lethargy, irritability or confusion

In the cases in the U.K., all the children had unrelenting fever, rash, vomiting, diarrhea and generalized extremity pain. And there are additional symptoms more specific to Kawasaki disease or Toxic Shock Syndrome that may present, including bloodshot eyes, red hands and feet that were also swollen, a large body rash, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, a “strawberry tongue” and red, cracked lips.

Hospitals are now reporting cases to their respective health departments, and as Governor Cuomo said, “This is the last thing we need at this time.”

For more information about Kawasaki disease you can check out the Kawasaki Disease Foundation and the Kawasaki Kids Foundation.

We’ve curated some videos on the subject below. Some pre-date the updated report from the MailOnline, but we will share updated videos that include the new information as soon as they are available.

 

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137 Cases In NY

New York Governor Andrew Cuomo said Tuesday that the state has now confirmed 137 cases of a rare illness in children connected to COVID-19.

Governor Cuomo said he believes the state’s discovery is just the “tip of the iceberg” for the illness known as Multisystem Inflammatory Illness in Children (MIS-C).

This video is from CBSNews.

 

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Global Cases Emerging

How vulnerable are children to Covid-19? Signs are mounting the risks are bigger than originally thought.

Doctors around the world are working to understand an illness with possible links to the coronavirus, found in children.

It shares symptoms with the rare, potentially life-threatening blood condition, Kawasaki disease, which can cause toxic shock.

Cases were first reported in the UK, Italy and Spain, and now the United States is seeing clusters of the disorder.

The more we live with coronavirus, the more we learn about who it affects and how.

This video is from DW News.

 

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A Mother's Warning

Once considered a less vulnerable age group, more hospitals are reporting children being treated with pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome that’s associated with COVID-19.

The mysterious illness has symptoms that mimic that of Kawasaki disease or toxic shock.

Mindi Herman’s then 6-month-old son experienced that first hand, and she has a warning to other parents to ‘trust their instincts’ if their child shows similar symptoms.

This video from ABC6 Action News in Philadelphia.

***UPDATE:

ABC6 reports there have been a total of 18 reports of children, including at least one in south Jersey, who are showing signs of an inflammatory syndrome that could be associated with COVID-19, according to Health Commission Judy Persichilli.

During a news conference on Wednesday, Persichilli said the children are between the ages of 3 and 18. The cases are currently under investigation in Bergen, Essex, Gloucester, Hudson, Middlesex, Monmouth, Passaic, Union and Warren counties, she said.

She said of the 18, so far, four of the children have tested positive for COVID-19.

The mysterious illness has symptoms that mimic that of Kawasaki disease or toxic shock.

New numbers include 150 cases nationwide. The CDC set to issue a warning this week.

 

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EMERGENCY: MANHUNT

Multi-State: Manhunt OVER

Abled.ALERT: Two photos of murder suspect Peter Manfredonia.

UPDATE: Double murder suspect Peter Manfredonia appeared in a Maryland courtroom Thursday afternoon, after he was captured at truck stop near Hagerstown Wednesday night. The following video report from WBZ in Baltimore provides  the latest.

"It's Time To Surrender"

 

Abled.Alert: Image captured by a security camera of a person walking along railway tracks in a white t-shirt and black shorts carrying a duffle bag.

 

UPDATE: SUSPECT CAPTURED WEDNESDAY NIGHT IN HAGERSTOWN, MARYLAND.

Previous report:

Police have released what they believe is a security camera photo (above) of the subject of a multi-state manhunt that’s underway for a 23 year-old University of Connecticut senior.

Peter Manfredonia. is the main suspect in two murders, an assault and abduction and police believe he moved through Connecticut, New Jersey and Pennsylvania over the long weekend.

Manfredonia was last seen East Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania on Sunday where he was dropped off by an Uber in front of a Walmart store.

A police statement Tuesday morning said  “Through interviews with the driver and recovered security camera footage, Troopers were able to determine that Manfredonia walked behind Walmart and other businesses onto a set of train tracks and was still in possession of a (duffel) bag full of guns he stole from a home invasion in Connecticut.”

For that reason police have issued a warning to the public that Manfredonia should be considered armed and dangerous and urged anyone who sees him to call 911 and not approach him.

The chain of events was set-off Friday when 62 year-old Ted DeMers offered Manfredonia a lift back to his motorcycle after finding him walking along a road in Willington, Connecticut. It’s believed DeMers was killed with a machete or sword.

Police say Manfredonia then drove 60 miles south to Derby where he is suspected of killing 23 year-old acquaintance Nicholas Eisele, and then forcing Eisele’s girlfriend into her car and driving off.

She and her car were later found at a rest stop in Paterson, New Jersey.

A woman who lives near one of the crime scenes said she saw a man – believed to be Manfredonia – break down in the street.

Joan Valinski said “I thought whoever the guy was he was having a nervous breakdown. I don’t know, I mean, you don’t see people out in the middle of the road waving their hands and screaming hysterically.”

Eisele was found dead in his home on Sunday. Earlier the same day, a Willington man reported a home invasion and being held against his will. He said Manfredonia took food, several guns and the man’s trick which was later found abandoned near a state parka out a mile from Eisele’s home.

Mike Dolan, a lawyer for Manfredonia’s family, said the suspect has struggled with mental health issues and has “sought the help of a number of therapists.”

“Peter, if you are listening, you are loved,” Dolan said at a news conference Monday. “So, Peter, from your parents, we love you, please turn yourself in.”

The FBI is helping with the investigation.

 

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Arrest Details

Connecticut State police brief the media on the capture of murder suspect Peter Manfredonia.

This video from wfsb.com

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Pleas For Surrender

Police and the parents of 23 year old Peter Manfredonia are pleading with the murder suspect to turn himself in.

This as the manhunt intensifies across three states. This video is from CBS News.

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Car Stolen

A college student sought by police as a suspect in two slayings was looking for a third person, a young woman he knew, when he showed up in the rural Connecticut neighborhood where the first victim was killed, the victim’s wife said Tuesday.

The suspect, University of Connecticut senior Peter Manfredonia, 23, was last reported seen in Pennsylvania on Sunday and is the target of a search involving several police agencies and the FBI.

He also stole a vehicle with Pennsylvania license plates on it.

This video is from PAHomepage.com and WBRE TV, the NBC affiliate in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.

 

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EMERGENCY: FLOODING

MICHIGAN: Dam Failures

Abled.ALERT: Video frame shows flooding and a raised road breached after a dam failure in Edenville, Michigan.

A State of Emergency has been declared in Midland County, Michigan north of Detroit after two dams failed Tuesday and caused historic flooding. Mandatory evacuation orders are in place in Edenville and Sanford and the state has requested Federal help.

Flooding Alert

The warnings had been coming all day Tuesday for residents around Michigan’s Edenville Dam.

Heavy rains of late had gorged Wixom Lake and officials at the hydroelectric dam rushed to release water from the lake into the Tittabawassee River to release pressure on the dam in a doomed effort to maintain its integrity.

The dam failed just before 6:00 p.m. local time, and the video above captured the lake water bursting through the dam’s flanking embankment. An hour and 15 minutes later, the Sanford Dam was breached.

The flooding has become the worst natural disaster in the state’s modern history, breaking a record set in 1986 when waters rose to 33.9 feet after a relentless downpour of rain. During this disaster, the Tittabawassee River reached 35.05 feet after days of rain.

The rushing waters washed out trees, bridges, roads, homes and businesses from the township of Edenville through Sanford and into the city of Midland.

The dam collapses have led to mandatory evacuation orders, a boil water advisory, washed-out roads and a State of Emergency declaration from Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer, whose office has reached out to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for support. 

Rescuers were going door to door throughout Thursday to check on residents.

In the photo below by Ben Tierney, is an aerial view of downtown Midland and the surrounding area under about 8 to 10 feet of water before the dam breach waters surged through. The green circle to the right of center is the local Farmer’s Market.

At a news conference late Wednesday, Midland City Manager Brad Kaye said “Don’t rush out thinking you can rush back in. The water is still there. Most homes that are flooded will be flooded for a good period of time. We can’t even consider reopening most of these until (the river drops) to 24 feet, which likely won’t be until Saturday night.”

And as you’ll learn in one of the curated video reports below, regulatory questions are being raised about Edenville Dam’s hydro-power generating license. It had been removed in 2018 for what was termed “its inability to withstand a major flood”.

 

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Aerial photo of Midland, Michigan under 8 to 10 feet of water from dam collapse flooding.

Evacuations

Central Michigan suffers two dam collapses in hours. Thousands of residents were forced to flee and a nearby chemical plant was evacuated.

Officials say hundreds are in shelters and some are sleeping in their cars over fears of catching the coronavirus.

This report is from ABC World News Tonight.

WATCH THE FULL EPISODE OF ‘WORLD NEWS TONIGHT’: https://bit.ly/3cT2tXs

 

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Incredible Images

Wixom Lake, a reservoir of the Edenville Dam was entirely drained after record flooding cause the embankment to fail on Tuesday, March 19, 2020.

This footage captured on May 20 shows the devastation caused around the lake and immediately downstream of the dam.

This video is from MLive.

 

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Previous Warnings

New information has been uncovered about who is responsible for the failure of the Edenville Dam, which led to catastrophic flooding in central Michigan.

This report is from The Local 4 Defenders at NBC Detroit affiliate WDIV.

 

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The elderly are most at risk from Coronavirus. But children are affected too. What parents should know. Public service announcement for Unicef USA over a photo of a child washing hands with soap and water. Link to Unicef site.

CURATED EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDES

Abled.ALERT: What To Do" Emergency Response Guides. Image: Alert red beacon icon and photo of emergency vehicles with red lights flashing responding at night.

St John Ambulance Videos

Under the challenges of the current global COVID-19 pandemic, it may be difficult to get immediate help from first responders in an emergency.

If that emergency occurs in a public place, it may be impossible to get help from members of the public, even if they’re trained in first-aid because of fears of catching the SARS CoV-2 coronavirus.

We’ve curated some videos from St John Ambulance in England to provide quick demonstrations on what to do if you’re confronted by a medical emergency in someone at home, or outside your home.

Wikipedia explains that St John Ambulance is the name of a number of affiliated organizations in different countries which teach and provide first aid and emergency medical services, and are primarily staffed by volunteers. The associations are overseen by the international Order of St John and its priories (national branches).

The first such organisation to be founded was the St John Ambulance Association, which was founded in 1877 in England.

Elizabeth IIHead of the Commonwealth since 1952—is at the apex of the Order of Saint John as its Sovereign Head.

 

We hope you find the videos helpful and will consider a donation St John Ambulance at a time when we need them more than ever. Abled.com is not affiliated with the organization in any way and provides the donation links as a public service.

 

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Choking Response

If someone is choking, knowing how to help them could help save their life. In this video a St John Ambulance trainer shows you how to help an adult or child when they are choking.

If someone is unable to breathe and cannot cough out the blockage, you will need to help them slap or squeeze it out.

This St John Ambulance video will take you through the essential first aid steps.

 

What to do: Choking Adult

  1. *If you think someone is choking, ask them ‘Are you choking?’ If they can breathe, speak or cough then they might be able to clear their own throat. If they cannot breathe, cough, or make any noise, then they need your help straight away.
  2.  
  3. *Cough it out. Encourage them to cough and remove any obvious obstruction from their mouth.
  4.  
  5. *Slap it out. If coughing fails to work, you need to give five sharp back blows.To do this, help them to lean forwards, supporting their upper body with one hand.With the heel of your other hand give them five sharp back blows between their shoulder blades.After each back blow, check to see if there’s anything in their mouth.
  6.  
  7. *Squeeze it out. If back blows fail to clear the obstruction, give five abdominal thrusts.To do this, stand behind them and put your arms around their waist.Place one hand in a clenched fist between their belly button and the bottom of their chest.With your other hand, grasp your fist and pull sharply inwards and upwards up to five times. Check their mouth again, each time.
  8.  
  9. *If the blockage has not cleared, call your local emergency line for help straight away. Repeat five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until help arrives, re-checking their mouth each time. If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to start adult CPR

 

What to do: Choking Child

  1. *If you think a child is choking, ask them ‘Are you choking?’. If they can breathe, speak, or cough then they might be able to clear their own throat. If they cannot breathe, cough, or make any noise, then they need your help straight away.
  2.  
  3. *Cough it out. Encourage them to cough and remove any obvious obstruction from their mouth.
  4.  
  5. *Slap it out. If coughing fails to work, you need to give five sharp back blows. To do this, help them to lean forwards, supporting their upper body with one hand. With the heel of your other hand give them five sharp back blows between their shoulder blades.After each back blow, check their mouth and pick out any obvious obstruction. Do not sweep the mouth as this could push the object further down the throat.
  6.  
  7. *Squeeze it out. If back blows fail to clear the obstruction, give five abdominal thrusts. To do this, stand behind them and put your arms around the child’s waist. Place one hand in a clenched fist between their belly button and the bottom of their chest. With your other hand, grasp your fist and pull sharply inwards and upwards up to five times. Check their mouth again, each time.
  8.  
  9. *If the blockage has not cleared, call your local emergency line for help straight away. Repeat five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until help arrives, rechecking their mouth each time. If they become unresponsive at any point prepare to start child CPR.

 

What to do: Choking Baby

If you think the baby is choking then they need your help straight away. If they can breathe, are making noises, or coughing, then they may be able to clear their own throat.

  1. *Slap it out. If the baby cannot breathe, cry, or cough, they may be choking and you will need to give five back blows. Lay the baby face down along your forearm and thigh, making sure you support their head and neck. Give five sharp back blows between the shoulder blades with the heel of your hand.
  2.  
  3. *Turn them over on your thigh and check their mouth. Pick out any obvious obstructions you can see with your fingertips. Do not sweep the mouth as this could push the object further down the throat.
  4.  
  5. *Squeeze it out. If back blows fail to clear obstruction, give five chest thrusts with your baby facing upwards, making sure you’re supporting their head and neck. Put two fingers in the centre of their chest just below the nipple line and give five sharp chest thrusts.Check their mouth again, each time.
  6.  
  7. *Call your local emergency line for help if the obstruction hasn’t cleared. Take the baby with you to make the call.Keep repeating five back blows and five chest thrusts until help arrives, checking their mouth each time. If the baby becomes unresponsive at any point, prepare to start baby CPR.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Act FAST

A stroke is a medical emergency and you need to act fast. A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone is having a stroke and what to do to help.

Time is of the essence.

What to do

If you suspect someone is having a stroke, use  the FAST guide  to identify the key signs:

  1. F – stands for facial weakness.Look at  their mouth or eye – they  may be droopy, and they can’t smile evenly.

  2. A – arm weakness. Ask them to raise both of their arms. They may only be able to raise one. 

  3. S – speech problems. They are unable to speak clearly or might not be able to understand what you are saying to them. Ask them a question, such as ‘What is your name?’  Can they respond appropriately?

  4. T – time to call 999/112 in the UK or 911 in the USA and Canada for emergency help  and tell them you suspect a stroke after using the FAST guide.

  5. *While waiting for help to arrive, keep them comfortable, supported and reassure them. Do not give them anything to eat or drink because it may be hard for them to swallow.

  6. *Keep monitoring their level of response until help arrives. If they become unresponsive prepare to treat for an unresponsive casualty.

Find out more about what to do if someone is having a stroke and learn more about what a stroke is, causes, signs & symptoms at the St. John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Heart Attack Response

If you think someone is having a heart attack, knowing how to help them could be life saving.

In this video a St John Ambulance trainer shares signs of a heart attack and shows you how to care for someone having a heart attack.

Heart attacks are serious and performing these first aid steps could help to save someone’s life.

What is a heart attack?

A heart attack happens when the supply of blood to part of the heart is suddenly blocked, usually by a blood clot. You can make a full recovery following a heart attack, but this may depend on how much of the heart is affected.

Signs and symptoms

Someone having a heart attack may:

*have crushing pain in the centre of their chest, that may spread to their jaw, and down one or both arms.

*be breathless or gasping for breath.

*be sweating profusely.

*experience pain similar to indigestion.

*collapse without warning.

*complain of dizziness.

*have pale skin and their lips may have a blue tinge .

*have a rapid, weak or irregular pulse.

*have a feeling of impending doom.

What to do

  1. *Call 999 or 112 | 911 in the USA and Canada for emergency help straight away and tell them you think someone is having a heart attack.

  2. *Help move the casualty into a comfortable position. The best position is on the floor, with their knees bent and their head and shoulders supported. You could place cushions behind them or under their knees.

  3. *Give them one aspirin tablet (300mg) and ask them to chew it slowly. Do not give aspirin to the casualty if they are under 16 or if they are allergic to it.

  4. *Ask the casualty to take their own angina medication, if they have some.

  5. *Keep monitoring the casualty’s level of response until emergency help arrives.

    *If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to start CPR.

Find out more about what to do if someone is having a heart attack at the St. John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Adult CPR

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It combines chest compressions and rescue breaths to give a person the best chance of survival following a cardiac arrest.

We’ve updated our guidance due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Do not perform rescue breaths on the casualty.

If an adult is unresponsive and not breathing normally, you still need to call for emergency help and start CPR straight away.

 

What to do:

  1. *If you find someone collapsed, you should first perform a primary survey.  Do not place your face close to theirs. If you have established from this that they are unresponsive and not breathing, you should ask a helper to call the local emergency number for help while you start CPR. Ask a helper to find and bring a defibrillator, if available.
  2.  
  3. *Ask your helper to put the phone on speaker and hold it out towards you, so they can maintain a 2m distance. If you are on your own, use the hands-free speaker on a phone so you can start CPR while speaking to ambulance control. Do not leave the casualty to look for a defibrillator yourself. The ambulance will bring one.
  4.  
  5. *Before you start CPR, use a towel or piece of clothing and lay it over the mouth and nose of the casualty.Start CPR. Kneel by the casualty and put the heel of your hand on the middle of their chest. Put your other hand on top of the first. Interlock your fingers making sure they don’t touch the ribs.Keep your arms straight and lean over the casualty. Press down hard, to a depth of about 5-6cm before releasing the pressure, allowing the chest to come back up. The beat of the song “Staying Alive” can help you keep the right speedDo not give rescue breaths.
  6.  
  7. *Continue to perform CPR until:
    • *emergency help arrives and takes over
    • *the person starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally
    • *you are too exhausted to continue (if there is a helper, you can change over every one-to-two minutes, with minimal interruptions to chest compressions)
    • *defibrillator is ready to be used.
  8.  
  9. *If the helper returns with a defibrillator, ask them to switch it on and follow the voice prompts while you continue with CPR. Wherever possible, the helper should keep a distance of 2m.
  10.  
  11. *If the casualty shows signs of becoming responsive such as coughing, opening eyes, speaking, and starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. Monitor their level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary. If you have used a defibrillator, leave it attached.

You can find more information and illustrations on how to perform CPR on an adult at the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Baby CPR

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It combines chest compressions and rescue breaths to give a person the best chance of survival following a cardiac arrest.

We’ve updated our guidance due to the COVID-19 outbreak. It is vital that you perform rescue breaths as cardiac arrest in a baby is likely caused by a respiratory problem.

 

What to do:

  1. *After you have performed a primary survey, if you find that the baby is unresponsive and not breathing, you should ask a helper to call your local emergency number for help while you start CPR.
  2.  
    • *If you’re on your own, you need to give one minute of CPR before calling on a speakerphone.
    •  
    • *Do not leave the baby to make the call.
  3.  
  4. *Start CPR. Place them on a firm surface and open their airway. To do this, place one hand on their forehead and very gently tilt their head back. With your other hand, use your fingertip and gently lift the chin.
  5.  
  6. *Give five initial puffs. Take a breath and put your mouth around the baby’s mouth and nose to make a seal, and blow gently and steadily for up to one second. The chest should rise. Remove your mouth and watch the chest fall. That’s one rescue breath, or puff. Do this five times.
  7.  
    • *If their chest doesn’t rise, check the airway is open. Doing rescue breaths may increase the risk of transmitting the COVID-19 virus, either to the rescuer or the baby. This may be mitigated by placing a faceshield or pocket mask over the baby’s mouth.
    •  
  8. *It is vital that you perform rescue breaths as cardiac arrest in a baby is likely caused by a respiratory problem.

  9.  
  10. *You will then need to give 30 pumps. Put two fingers in the centre of the baby’s chest and push down a third of the depth of the chest. Release the pressure allowing the chest to come back up. Repeat this 30 times at a rate of 100 to 120 pumps per minute.
  11.  
  12. *You will then need to give 30 pumps. Put two fingers in the centre of the baby’s chest and push down a third of the depth of the chest. Release the pressure allowing the chest to come back up. Repeat this 30 times at a rate of 100 to 120 pumps per minute.
  13.  
    • *The beat of the song ‘Nellie the Elephant’ can help you keep the right rate. 
  14.  
  15. *After 30 pumps, open the airway and give two puffs. Keep alternating 30 pumps with two puffs (30:2) until:
  16.  
    • *emergency help arrives and takes over
    •  
    • *the baby starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally.
  17.  
  18. *If the baby shows signs of becoming responsive, such as, coughing, opening their eyes, making a noise, or starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. Monitor their level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary.

You can find more information and illustrations on how to perform CPR on a baby at the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Child CPR

If a child is unresponsive and not breathing, you will need to do CPR. In this video, a St John Ambulance trainer shows the steps & demonstrates how to do CPR on a child, and explains what to do if you’re helping the casualty alone, or with a helper.

Use the primary survey to quickly assess the situation and the casualty. Find out what to do.

 

What is CPR?

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

We’ve updated our guidance due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Rescue breaths must still be performed, as cardiac arrest in children is likely to be caused by a respiratory problem.

 

**If a child is unresponsive and not breathing normally, you still need to call 999 or 112 (UK) 911 (USA & Canada) for emergency help and start CPR straight away!

 

What to do

  1. After you have performed a primary survey, if you find that the child is unresponsive and not breathing you should ask a helper to call 999 or 112 for emergency help while you start CPR. Ask a helper to find and bring a defibrillator if available.

    If you are on your own, you need to give one minute of CPR before calling on a speaker phone.

  2.  
  3. Do not leave the child to make the call or to look for a defibrillator.
  4.  

    *Start CPR:

    Place them on a firm surface and open their airway. To do this, place one hand on their forehead to tilt their head back and use two fingers from the other hand to gently lift the chin.

     

  5. *Give 5 initial rescue breaths.

    Take the hand from the forehead and pinch the soft part of the nose closed, allowing the mouth to fall open.

    With the head still tilted, take a breath and put your mouth around the child’s, to make a seal.

    Blow into their mouth gently and steadily for up to one second, until the chest rises.

    Remove your mouth and watch the chest fall.

    That’s one rescue breath. Do this five times.

     

  6. *You will then need to give 30 chest compressions.

    Kneel by the child and put one hand in the centre of the child’s chest.

    Push down a third of the depth of the chest.

    Release the pressure allowing the chest to come back up.

    Repeat this 30 times at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions per minute.

    The beat of the song ‘Nellie the Elephant’ can help you keep the right rate.

  7.  

    *After 30 compressions, open the airway and give two breaths.

    Keep alternating 30 compressions with two breaths (30:2) until:

    • the child starts showing signs of life and starts to breathe normally
    • defibrillator is ready to be used.

    Doing rescue breaths may increase the risk of transmitting the COVID-19 virus, either to the rescuer or the child. This may be mitigated by placing a faceshield or pocket mask over the child’s mouth.

    **It is vital that you perform rescue breaths as cardiac arrest in a child is likely caused by a respiratory problem.

  8.  

    *If the helper returns with a defibrillator:

    Ask them to switch it on and follow the voice prompts while you continue with CPR.

  9. *If the child shows signs of becoming responsive:

    With actions such as such as coughing, opening eyes, speaking, and starts to breathe normally, put them in the recovery position. Monitor their level of response and prepare to give CPR again if necessary.

    • If you have used a defibrillator, leave it attached.

     

    *You can find more information and illustrated examples at the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Bleeding Response

In this video, a St John Ambulance trainer explains what to do if someone is bleeding severely. When bleeding is severe, it can be dramatic and distressing. If someone’s bleeding isn’t controlled quickly, they may develop shock and become unresponsive.

Your priority is to stop the bleeding.

 

*What To Do

 

*Put on gloves

With open wounds, there’s a risk of infection, so wear protective first aid gloves (if available) to help prevent any infection passing between you both.

 

*Apply direct pressure to the wound:

Use a sterile dressing if possible or a clean non-fluffy cloth, to stop the bleeding.

  • If you don’t have a dressing you can ask the casualty to do this themselves.
  •  
  • If the wound is covered by the casualty’s clothing, remove or cut the clothes to uncover the wound.
  •  
  • If there’s an object in the wound, don’t pull it out. It may be acting as a plug to reduce the bleeding. Instead apply pressure on either side of the object to push the edges together.

 

*Ask a helper to call emergency

Give Ambulance Control details of where the wound is and the extent of the bleeding.

  • If you are on your own, use the hands-free speaker on a phone so that you can treat while speaking to ambulance control.
  •  

*Firmly secure the dressing:

Use a bandage to maintain pressure on the wound. Make it firm enough to maintain pressure but not so tight that it restricts their circulation.

 

*Check their circulation beyond the bandage.

Press one of the nails or the skin beyond the bandage for five seconds until it turns pale, then release the pressure. If the colour does not return within two seconds, the bandage is too tight. If necessary, loosen and reapply the bandage.

 

*Treat symptoms of shock.

The loss of blood could cause the casualty to develop shock. Treat them for this by helping them to lie down, on a rug or blanket. Raise and support their legs, so they are above the level of their heart. You should then loosen any tight clothing around their neck, chest and waist and cover the casualty with a blanket to keep them warm.

 

*If bleeding shows through the pad or dressing, don’t remove it.

Apply a second dressing on top of the first. If blood seeps through both dressings, remove both and replace with a fresh dressing. When changing dressings, keep pressure applied to the bleeding site.

 

Support the injured part with a sling or bandage.

Keep checking the circulation beyond the bandage every 10 minutes.

 

*Monitor:

Keep monitoring their level of response until help arrives. If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to start CPR.

 

You can learn more and see illustrations at the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Burn Response

In this video, a St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to do if someone has suffered a burn or scald and shares signs to identify a burn or scald.

Burns and scalds are damages to the skin caused by heat.

A burn is usually caused by dry heat, like fire, a hot iron, or sunshine.

A scald is caused by wet heat, like steam or a hot cup of tea.

Your priority is to cool the burn as quickly as possible.

 

Signs and symptoms

 

*Look for:

  • red skin and swelling
  •  
  • pain in the area of the burn
  •  
  • blistering may start to appear.

 

What to do:

 

*Start cooling the burn or scald as quickly as possible.

Hold it under cool running water for at least 10 minutes or until the pain feels better. If there is no water available, you could use cold milk or canned drinks.

 

*Remove:

Remove any jewellery or clothing, unless stuck to the burn, before the area begins to swell.

 

*When the burn has cooled:

Cover the area loosely with cling film, lengthways. Do not wrap the cling film around the burn as the area needs space to swell.

  • If the burn is on a foot or hand you could use a clean plastic bag.
  •  
  • Do not use ice, creams or gels. They may cause damage and increase the risk of infection.
  •  
  • Do not break any blisters that may appear, as this may cause infection.

 

*Monitor the casualty. Seek medical advice.

 

More information and illustrations are available on the St John Ambulance website.

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Seizure Response

A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone is having a seizure, what causes a seizure and what to do to help.

 

What are seizures and what causes seizures?

In adults, the most common cause of a seizure, also known as a convulsion or fit, is epilepsy. However, it can be caused by other things, including a head injury, alcohol poisoning, lack of oxygen, after taking certain drugs, or if someone with diabetes has a ‘hypo’ where their blood glucose is too low.

Epilepsy is a condition that affects the brain and can cause repeated seizures, which are often sudden and dramatic.

 

Signs and symptoms

 

*Look for:

 

  • sudden loss of responsiveness
  •  
  • a rigid body with an arching back
  •  
  • noisy, difficult breathing
  •  
  • grey blue tinge on the lips
  •  
  • start of jerky uncontrolled movements (uncontrolled)
  •  
  • saliva at the mouth, possibly blood stained if they have bitten their tongue or lip
  •  
  • loss of bladder or bowel control.

 

What to do

 

*Protect the casualty

With any seizure, it is important to first protect the casualty from harming themselves during the fit. Ask any bystanders to stand back and clear away any potentially dangerous objects, like hot drinks or sharp objects. Make a note of the time that the seizure started.

  • Do not restrain the casualty or move them unless they are in immediate danger.
  •  
  • Do not put anything in their mouth.

 

*Protect their head.

You could place soft padding underneath it, such as a rolled-up towel. You should also loosen any clothing around their neck.

 

*Check breathing.

When any jerky movements have stopped, open their airway and check their breathing. If they are breathing put them in the recovery position.

 

*Monitor:

Monitor their level of response and make a note of how long the seizure lasted. If they become unresponsive at any time, prepare to emergency and give CPR.

 

*Call emergency if:

 

  • it is the casualty’s first seizure
  •  
  • they are having repeated seizures
  •  
  • the cause of the seizure is unknown
  •  
  • the seizure continues for more than five minutes
  •  
  • the casualty is unresponsive for more than 10 minutes
  •  
  • they have an injury on another part of the body.
  •  

You can find more information and illustrations on the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Allergic Response

A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone has suffered a severe allergic reaction, such as an allergy rash and what to do to help to avoid anaphylactic shock.

 

What is an allergy?

An allergy is an abnormal reaction to an allergen or ‘trigger’ substance.

One of the most common allergens is plant pollen, which often causes hay fever. Other allergens include animal hair, bee stings, medication (especially penicillin), and food, such as nuts and shellfish.

 

What is a severe allergic reaction?

A severe allergic reaction can develop just seconds after someone comes into contact with the allergen. It can affect the whole body, and if it’s not treated quickly enough it could be fatal. This is called anaphylactic shock.

 

Signs and symptoms

 

*Look for: 

  • a red, itchy rash, or raised area of skin (weals)
  •  
  • red, itchy, watery eyes
  •  
  • swelling of hands, feet, or face
  •  
  • abdominal pain, vomiting, or diarrhoea.

There may also be:

  • difficulty in breathing
  •  
  • swelling of tongue and throat with puffiness around eyes
  •  
  • confusion and agitation
  •  
  • signs of shock leading to collapse and unresponsiveness.

 

What to do

 

*Call emergency immediately

Tell ambulance control that you suspect a severe allergic reaction.

 

*Check for auto-injector

If someone’s having a severe allergic reaction, then they may have medication, like an auto-injector. This is a pre-filled injection device containing adrenaline which when injected, can help reduce the body’s allergic reaction. 

Check if they have one, and if they do, help them to use it or do it yourself following the instructions.

 

*Monitor

Help them to get comfortable and monitor their breathing and level of response.

Repeated doses of adrenaline can be given at five-minute intervals if there is no improvement or the symptoms return.

 

You can find more information at the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Diabetic Response

A St John Ambulance trainer demonstrates what to look for if someone is having a diabetic emergency and what to do to help if you suspect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.

 

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a long-term medical condition where the body cannot produce enough insulin. Sometimes those who have diabetes may have a diabetic emergency, where their blood sugar level becomes too high or too low. Both conditions could be serious and may need treatment in hospital.

Insulin is a chemical produced by the pancreas (that lies behind the stomach). It regulates the blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body. When someone has diabetes, their body cannot keep the blood sugar level within the normal range. Their level can be higher or lower than normal blood sugar.

There are two types of diabetes:

  • Type 1, known as insulin dependent diabetes
  •  
  • Type 2, non-insulin dependent diabetes.

Someone with diabetes may have items with them which could lead you to suspect that they have diabetes:

  • they may be wearing a medical warning bracelet or necklace
  •  
  • they may be carrying glucose gel or glucose tablets
  •  
  • they could have medication, such as an insulin pen, a special pump or tablets and a glucose testing kit.

 

Hyperglycemia – High Blood Sugar

This is where the blood sugar level is higher than normal. It may be caused by a person with diabetes who has not had the correct dose of medication. They may have eaten too much sugary or starchy food or, they may be unwell with an infection.

 

*Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • warm, dry skin
  •  
  • rapid pulse and breathing
  •  
  • fruity, sweet breath
  •  
  • excessive thirst
  •  
  • drowsiness, leading them to become unresponsive if not treated (also known as a diabetic coma)
  •  
  • medical warning jewellery or medication.

 

What to do

 

Call 999 or 112 in the UK | 911 in the US or Canada.

If you suspect hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar), they need urgent treatment. Call 999 or 112 for emergency help and say that you suspect hyperglycaemia.

They may be wearing a medical bracelet or medallion, or have a card on them which can alert you to their condition.

 

*Check breathing & pulse.

While you wait for help to arrive, keep checking their breathing, pulse and whether they respond to you. If they become unresponsive at any point, open their airway, check their breathing and prepare to start CPR.

 

Hypoglycemia – Low Blood Sugar

This is where the blood sugar level is lower than normal. It can be caused by an imbalance between the level of insulin and the level of glucose in the blood. Someone with diabetes may recognise the onset of a hypoglycemic episode.

 

Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • weakness, faintness or hunger
  •  
  • confusion and irrational behaviour
  •  
  • sweating with cold, clammy skin
  •  
  • rapid pulse
  •  
  • palpitations
  •  
  • trembling or shaking
  •  
  • deteriorating level of response
  •  
  • medical warning jewellery or medication.

 

What to do

 

*Give something sweet

If you suspect hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), help the person to sit down. If they have their own glucose gel or glucose tablets, help them take it. If not, you need to give them something sugary, such as a 150ml | 5 oz glass of fruit juice or non-diet fizzy drink; three teaspoons of sugar or sugar lumps; or three sweets such as jelly babies.

 

*Monitor and repeat if necessary

If they improve quickly, give them more of the sugary food or drink and let them rest. If they have their blood glucose testing kit with them, help them use it to check their blood sugar level. Stay with them until they feel completely better.

 

*Call emergency if needed

If they do not improve quickly, look for any other reason why they could be unwell and call emergency for help.

 

*Monitor

Keep monitoring their breathing and level of response while waiting for help to arrive.

  • If they are not fully alert, don’t try to give them something to eat or drink as they may choke.
  •  
  • If they become unresponsive at any point, open their airway, check their breathing and prepare to give CPR.

 

You can find more information on this at the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

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Asthma Response

This St John Ambulance first aid training video shows you what signs to look out for and how to help someone having an asthma attack.

If you think someone may be having an asthma attack, it is important to know how to help them.

 

What is an asthma attack?

During an asthma attack, the muscles of the air passages in the lungs go into spasm. As a result, the airways become narrowed, which makes breathing more difficult. Sometimes there is a recognised trigger for an attack, such as a cold, a drug, cigarette smoke or an allergy. At other times, there is no obvious trigger.

 

Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • difficulty breathing
  •  
  • wheezing and coughing
  •  
  • distress and anxiety
  •  
  • difficulty speaking, shown through short sentences and whispering
  •  
  • signs of hypoxia such as grey-blue tinge to the lips, earlobes and nailbeds
  •  
  • exhaustion, in the case of a severe attack.

 

What to do

 

*Reassure the casualty

Ask them to take their usual dose of their reliever inhaler.

Ask them to breathe slowly and deeply.

  • If they have a spacer available, ask them to use it with their inhaler. The inhaler is more effective with a spacer when being used for young children.
  •  
  • If they have no inhaler call emergency for help.
  •  

*Sit them down in a comfortable position.

 

*Assess severity

A mild attack will normally ease after a few minutes. However, if they don’t improve within a few minutes, it may be a severe attack. Ask them to take one to two puffs of their inhaler every two minutes, until they have had 10 puffs. Help the casualty to use their inhaler if they need to.

 

*Call emergency for help if:

the attack is severe, and they are getting worse, becoming exhausted, or if this is their first attack.

 

*Monitor

Monitor their breathing and level of response. If the ambulance hasn’t arrived within 15 minutes, repeat step 3.

If they become unresponsive at any point prepare to give CPR.

 

You can find more information on the St John Ambulance website.

 

If you’ve found this helpful, please consider making a contribution to your country’s St John organization:

Donate to St John Ambulance England

Donate to St John Priory USA

Donate to John Ambulance Canada

Donate to St John Ambulance Australia

Donate to St John Ambulance South Africa

 

^close

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